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  what3words & The Times Future Scotland
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  • 1. FutureScot An independent publication by BrandScotland brandscotland.com 24 February 2016 Themoraldilemma ofself-drivingcars2 Whyiscomputing somale?4 Howdatacan helpyouwin19 Owningupto beinghacked22 50pioneersshaping technology...including theScotwiththeworld’s braininhishands The Digital List
  • 2. 2 FUTURESCOT BRIEFING 24 February 2016 Fromsimplewebpages tothe‘splinternet’,our relationshipwithdigital technologyischanging fasterthanwecan imagine BY WILLIAM PEAKIN In the basement of Glasgow’s new Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, all is quiet except for the whirr of electric motors and the soft sound of rubber rolling across smooth concrete floors. It comes from the ‘automated guided vehicles’(AGVs); robot porters that are programmed to transport medical supplies, linen, food and waste. Unveiled last year, the AGVs access their own ‘smart lifts’to reach the Deliveriesbydrone andcarsthatdecide whetheryouliveordie: thefutureishere,butis itreallywhatwewant? different floors. They have sensors preventing them from bumping into people or objects (and announce their presence with the words: “Attention, automatic transport”) as they travel across the hospital’s 166,000sq metres and 14 levels. They ‘sleep’when idle and move to charging stations when their battery is low. Stephen Whitelaw, Glasgow Univer- sity computer science graduate, digital marketing consultant, social media evangelist and public speaker, cites the robot porters as an example of our digital future, a future that is here now. Another also involves transport: self- driving cars, but this time the benefit comes with a conflict, a choice between life and death: “They are designed to kill you; software has been written that will terminate your life.” What is he talking about? Imagine that in the not-too-distant future, you own a self-driving car. One day, while you are being driven with your partner and two children, the car finds itself heading unavoidably towards a group of pedestrians cross- ing the road. Should the car brake, but potentially still plough into them, or swerve and smash headlong into a brick wall (or worse, drive off a cliff), killing you and your family? What decision should the car be programmed to make? According to Whitelaw, major manu- facturers and Google – the most high- profile proponent of self driving cars – cannot agree on the correct outcome. One favours preserving the lives of the occupants, no matter the consequenc- es, another believes the number of lives saved should be the priority, while a third is consulting insurers on the financial implications of choosing one over the other. But, as Whitelaw points W elcome to the first edition of FutureScot, a supplement covering the digital technologies industry in Scotland and the ways it is changing people’s lives, here and around the world. More than 84,000 people work in the sector across Scotland, generating more than £5bn for the economy. According to KPMG’s Tech Monitor, the number of technology companies in Scotland grew 43.4% between 2010 and 2015, second only to London (54.6%). ScotlandIS, the industry’s trade body believes that the sector has the potential to double in size over the next five years. In its manifesto published last week, ahead of the 2016 Scottish Parliament election, ScotlandIS said that there should be a focus on fostering the growth of technology clusters; new ones in Aberdeen and Inverness, and targets set for Edinburgh and Glasgow to outperform successful cities such as Stockholm and Berlin. FutureScot will report on the progress of the industry’s ambition; how schools can respond to the need for more young people to choose digital technologies as a career, the ways in which more venture capital can flow through Scotland, the potential for significant growth in the value of exports, and its expertise in data science and cybersecurity. As Polly Purvis, chief executive of ScotlandIS, says: “We are at the beginning of the next information revolution. Scotland has the opportunity to convert our undeniable potential into a reality.” FutureScotisanindependentpublicationbyBrandScotland. EDITOR Will Peakin 0131 561 7364 will@futurescot.com DEPUTY EDITOR Kevin O’Sullivan 0131 561 7364 will@futurescot.com COVER PICTURE: John Giannandrea, head of search at Google. Copyright Brad Wenner/ bradwenner.com TYPOGRAPHY: Expresso and Flama from Feliciano Type Foundry http://www. felicianotypefoundry.com CONTENTS 2BRIEFING.3SKILLS. 8THECLOUD. 10TRANSFORMATION.11THEDIGITALLIST. 16TECHNATION.18BIGDATA. 21JOBS.22INVESTMENT. FUTURESCOT Creative Exchange 29 Constitution Street Edinburgh, EH6 7BS www.futurescot.com DESIGN & PRODUCTION Palmer Watson www.palmerwatson.com ADVERTISING Jake Oszczepalinski 0131 561 7351 jake@brandscotland.com PUBLISHER Hamish Miller 0131 561 7344 hamish@canongate.org FutureScot is an independent publication by BrandScotland distributed in The Times Scotland. All rights reserved. Neither this publication or part of it may be stored, reproduced or transmitted, electronically, photocopied or recorded without prior permission of the Publisher. Futurescot is published and exclusively distributed in The Times Scotland. We verify information to the best of our ability but do not accept responsibil- ity for any loss for reliance on any content published. If you wish to contact us please include your full name and address with a contact telephone number. FutureScot
  • 3. Newdigitalstudio willhaveaspacefor plantingtheseedsof ideas One of the big four professional ser- vices firms is looking to hire a range of digital and creative specialists in Edinburgh over the coming months, writes William Peakin. Deloitte Digital has studios in London and Belfast, as well as several around the world, but demand for its services in Scotland has prompted it to expand north of the border. You may think of accounting and audit services when you hear the name Deloitte, but in the UK it has more than 1,700 technology special- ists and a wider global team of more than 26,000 in 100 countries. The studio in Edinburgh is looking for experts in digital strategy, web design, cybersecurity, social media, mobile and digital delivery. “Scotland has a vibrant digital economy and tech scene. All of our public and private sector clients in Scotland are keen to capitalise upon the new opportunities that digital can create,”said Angela Mitchell, the Deloitte Partner in Scotland that is leading the set-up of the studio. “In addition to new routes to mar- kets, more connected services, and the opportunity to create improved customer experiences, there is also huge potential for our clients to use digital to transform their businesses internally and deliver on their perfor- mance improvement and efficiency targets.” As well as the studio, which is expected to employ 70 people by 2020, the company is also opening a ‘greenhouse’, a space in which it can help clients develop “disruptive, innovative and transformative solu- tions”. Mitchell added: “Our plan is to bring together all of our creative and technology capabilities, business acumen and industry insight that is needed to help transform our clients’ businesses. “Clients bring us their challenges, we reimagine their future. To us, the question is about much more than ‘being digital’. It’s about how we use digital to inspire engagement, prefer- ence, and loyalty from people. It’s about how we transform behaviours, services and organisations. “To do that, businesses today need a different kind of partner - one that tears down the traditional model of creative, tech, and business services in-silo. “Deloitte Digital is creating a new model - we’re an agency and a consultancy. “With our combination of industry experts, technology leaders and creative specialists, clients can bring us their biggest challenges, knowing we’ve got what it takes to bring a new vision to life.” www.deloittedigital.com It’sabouthow weusedigital toinspire engagement, preferenceand loyaltyfrom people. 3FUTURESCOTBRIEFING24 February 2016 Welcometothe‘greenhouse’Weareenteringanera of‘masscustomisation’, combininghighvolume productionwithcustomers’ individual’sneeds. Picture:CreativeCommons Forward thinking for forward thinkers As Scotland’s largest accountancy & advisory firm we have significant experience in the Technology sector and act for businesses of all sizes. We help you challenge the status quo, identify opportunities for improvement and practical solutions to problems. Speak to one of our advisors on 0131 220 2203 or visit us at jcca.co.uk Ifyouareaterrorist oryouarehaving anaffair,orifyou areaterrorist havinganaffair, they’llknow. StephenWhitelaw out, self-driving cars will be infinitely safer than those driven by humans, whether you are inside or out. It is these contrasts that Whitelaw is adept at highlighting. Some are relatively well known. The quotes from Thomas Watson, IBM’s chairman, in 1943 – “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers’– or Bill Gates, Microsoft’s cofounder - “640k of memory should be enough for any- body”– for example. Others, less so; a picture of 5MB hard drive, weighing a ton, being loaded onto a Boeing 747 and another of Honeywell’s 1969 ‘kitch- en computer’, that cost nearly $11,000, but at least came with an integral chop- ping board. What message should we take from Whitelaw’s perspective? The potential of more unique data be- ing created in 2016 than there has been in the past 5,000 years, or the fact that 2015 saw the highest rate of divorce (caused in no small part by the leak of confidential information from dating websites). That young people have more information at their fingertips than ever before, or that digital detox holidays for teenagers is a growing business. One certainly is that commerce and consumption are unstoppable; from deliveries by drone, currently being tested in Scotland, to wirelessly connected buttons that can be stuck around your house so you can order goods – toilet rolls, washing powder, cosmetics – with a simple touch and, ‘even better’, domestic devices that have their own IP address – a coffee maker, for example – and can order top-ups themselves. Also, that we are entering an era of ‘mass customisation’; which combines high volume production with custom- ers’individual’s needs. Whitelaw said that 3D printing has the potential to disrupt many traditional industries and provide breakthroughs in health and medicine. Augmented and virtual reality will add layers of experience to our daily lives. A step yet further is the Google-backed company Magic Leap, which creates stunning holograms. Our increasing connection with technology comes at a price; you will be hacked, says Whitelaw, by criminals or by your government. Countries are attacking each other; the site digitalat- tackmap.com displays in real-time the source and target of such activity. So- cial media can reveal your location: “If you are a terrorist, or you are having an affair, or if you are a terrorist having an affair, they’ll know.” Even basic assumptions about the internet and the world wide web can be questioned, said Whitelaw. Email is dy- ing, teenagers are deserting Facebook and the ‘splinternet’– closed networks based on technology or geography – is growing. If you are interested in understand- ing what the future might hold, he recommends visiting longbets.org, a philanthropic site, and “an arena for competitive, accountable predictions”, supported by Amazon’s founder Jeff Bezos. Clientsbringustheirchallenges, wereimaginetheirfuture,says Deloitte’sAngelaMitchell
  • 4. Scotlandcan learnfromIndia whereanon- westernculture hasencouraged entirelydifferent innovations 4 FUTURESCOT SKILLS 24 February 2016 Thefirstcomputer programmerwasa woman.Thetop ‘humancomputers’in the1940swerewomen. It’sbeenallmensince then,butnowanew organisationisaiming toredresstheimbalance –inScotlandatleast. BY MORNA SIMPSON Lord Byron’s daughter Ada Lovelace is known for her work on an early me- chanical machine called the Analytics Engine invented by Charles Babbage. Its input consisted of punched cards, a method already in use in looms such as the Jacquard. Her work included what is now recognised as the first algorithm to be carried out by a machine, making her the first computer programmer. But it would not be until the 1940s that WhytheITCrowd needsmorewomen computers, as we know them, would be built. I found this out long after I first taught myself to code. It came as no surprise. I’d studied weave at Art School, and I found a lot of comfort, and similarities in the craft of coding. LOOKING BACK at the history of computing, women played a dominant role. In 1945, six of the best “human computers”- Kathleen McNulty, Frances Bilas, Betty Jean Jennings, Elizabeth Snyder Holberton, Ruth Lichterman and Marlyn Wescoff - were hired by the leaders of the top secret ENIAC project, the first general purpose computer. Coding implied manual labor, and mechanical translation or rote tran- scription. Thus women dominated the role, as they carried out work con- sidered to be low in terms of profes- sional status. There is proof, if ever you needed it, that women can code. But, while women made up around 37% of computer science courses in the early 80s, less than 20% of computer science students are women today. How then, did we get to the point where, women make up only 27% of those employed in Britain’s digital industries, a figure well below the UK average? Why is it that for every one woman study computing, there are just over five men? Why do even fewer women enter technology-based work- force, and why do so many drop out? This is a rich and exciting industry. It’s also an industry going through high growth and it doesn’t look like it will slow down any time soon. Not only that, but in Scotland this sector is growing 32% faster than the rest of the UK economy, and the sector’s Edin- burgh workers are among the highest paid in Britain. The average salary for a tech sector worker in Edinburgh is third in the UK at £51,000 a year. What does seem to be clear is that this is a cultural issue, and specifically a Western phenomenon. In India and much of Asia, women’s participation in Computer Science has increased in the past 15 years. In India in 2011, women constituted 42% of undergraduate stu- dents in CS and computer engineering. In addition, many Asian countries including India, have introduced legislation requiring a certain level of female boardroom inclusion. Although there have been initiatives in the UK 54.7% of financial managers, 59.3% of budget analysts and 62.8% of insurance underwriters. The myth that programming is for men only, is perpetuated. It’s every- where you look, from the unequivo- cal stereotypes in comedy (Big Bang Theory, The IT Crowd) to skirmishes on Twitter and a recent report which said that “women are considered bet- ter coders but only if they hide their gender.” IN 1984, something changed. The number of women in computer science flattened, and then plunged. NPR found that around the peak in the 80’s, computers began to be marketed to boys and men while women and girls were pushed aside. This led to a situation where men entering university computer science courses already had plenty of experi- ence with computers, while women did not. Market forces at their worst, left women feeling excluded by the culture surrounding computers. More recent- ly, computer games consoles have done nothing to improve this situation. Scotland’s technology culture is young. Its shape and direction will be InConceivingAda,TildaSwinton playedthewomanregardedas thefirstcomputerprogrammer and Europe, we lag behind and have fallen short of mandatory quotas. In Europe and the US, women are taking over many traditionally male dominated sectors. In the US women make up 62% of accountants and auditors; they are graduating in equal numbers to men in Law and Medicine, making up 56.9% of medical scien- tists, 61.2% of veterinarians, 68.8% of psychologists; and they comprise
  • 5. Information Security: BRUSSELSGLASGOWEDINBURGHABERDEEN The peace of mind from knowing you have instructed Scotland’s leading information law team Scotland Law Firm of the Year 2015 Who’s Who Legal Awards brodies.com/blog/technology@BrodiesTechBlog 5FUTURESCOTSKILLS24 February 2016 determined by decisions we make to- day through policy, and in the cultures we develop within our businesses, our schools and our universities. We know that our technology and enterprise culture are imbalanced. It is time to do something about it. As we face a skills deficit in technol- ogy, it is of economic importance to make technology-based, working envi- ronments as welcoming as possible to people of all gender identities, physical abilities, neurotypical or atypical people, religions and ethnicities. The US has a more mature technol- ogy ecosystem, and we can learn from their mistakes and their successes. Scotland can also learn from India, where a non-western culture has encouraged entirely different innova- tions in technology working practices, often driven by market forces. GIRL GEEK Scotland aims to draw attention to this issue as a cultural phenomenon and help to rebalance the ecosystem. We are seeking spon- sorship to offer scholarships to women from India, to come to Scotland and study Data Engineering or a related subject, with the aim of encouraging a cultural exchange that will banish the myth that computing is a subject for men only. Let’s learn from their experiences why a career in comput- ing is such an attractive proposition in India. A condition of the scholarships will be that the students will be Ambas- sadors for Change, and will give high profile talks on the subject of positive change for women in IT and related subjects. We will be working with e-Placement Scotland to find Scottish businesses that will offer three month paid placements for the graduate scholars to fully experience the cul- tural diversity. The students will be panel guests at a Girl Geek Scotland event, will speak at the host university and to an audience chosen by the Scholarship sponsors. In doing so, we hope to raise the profile of women in computing and encourage more women into Data Engineering, one of the fastest growth areas in our economy. Ada Lovelace would be proud. Morna Simpson is the founder of Girl Geek Scotland www.girlgeekscotland.com Don’tspendweeks workingonabusiness plan,justgetoutthere andfindyourfirstclient BY LESLEY ECCLES A recent RBS study revealed that women are half as likely as men to start their own business. And the vast majority of female-led businesses in Scotland are micro-businesses, em- ploying less than ten people financed through personal savings. Our women are not shooting for the stars. Why is this a problem that we would want to tackle? Consider the recent loss of jobs from the Tata steelworks closures – 270 jobs gone. Meanwhile, the tech sector is boom- ing with many times that number of skilled jobs created in Edinburgh in the last year alone. We cannot and should not rely on global companies locating warehouses or call centres here in order to shore up the Scottish economy - we need to be doing it for ourselves. So what’s holding budding female entrepreneurs back, why this lack of ambition? Whilst there is no secret formula for building a business, there are a number of key qualities shared by suc- cessful entrepreneurs, male or female. First and foremost, willingness to take risks is critical and this is where women and men can differ. Women are more likely to take a more cau- tious approach, concerned about the prospect of failure. This isn’t always a bad thing in business, but can hinder the start-up phase. When my fellow co-founders and I first identified an opportunity in the USA for daily fantasy sports, we knew that the only way to realise our vision was to take risks; we started the busi- ness in the UK - on the other side of the Atlantic from ou
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