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  Web services
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  • 1. Web Services Chidi Ononiwu
  • 3. Challenges
  • 4. Web Services
  • 5. Web Services <ul><li>XML, WSDL, SOAP and UDDI are the core technologies behind web services. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible over the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Use platform-independent and language-neutral web protocols. </li></ul><ul><li>Web services provide interfaces which can call from other programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be published because it is based on open technology standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate integration. </li></ul><ul><li>Support loosely coupled connections </li></ul><ul><li>between systems. </li></ul>
  • 6. Web Services Stack
  • 7. Web Services components XML WSDL UDDI Components Web Services SOAP
  • 8. Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • 9. What is URI often used in XML
  • 10. Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • 11. Extensible Markup Language (XML) <ul><li>XML or Extensible Markup Language is a meta-markup language that provides a format for describing structured data </li></ul><ul><li>XML is the universal format for structured documents and data </li></ul><ul><li>XML provides a standard for more precise declarations of content and more meaningful search results across loosely coupled applications </li></ul><ul><li>It provides the basic functionality of defining and transforming data </li></ul>
  • 12. Extensible Markup Language (XML) <ul><li>It is application independent hence incorporating flexibility, reusability and interoperability (Deitel etal 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus XML can improve web functionality and interoperability. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of XML can also simplify the integration with external data sources guaranteeing organisations requesting and obtaining information in real time and transform it to XML format. </li></ul>
  • 13. Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • 14. Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • 15. Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema DTD Style sheet XML
  • 16. <ul><li>DTDs </li></ul><ul><li>Define Structure, but Not Content </li></ul><ul><li>Author can Override a DTD within a Document </li></ul><ul><li>Best Used for Interactively Authoring an XML Document </li></ul>Extensible Markup Language (XML) <ul><li>Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Define Structure And Data Content </li></ul><ul><li>Author can Not Override a Schema within a Document </li></ul><ul><li>Best Used to Validate Program Input </li></ul><ul><li>Style sheet </li></ul><ul><li>By separating content from format, you can </li></ul><ul><li>applied to the same XML document </li></ul><ul><li>Any style sheet changes will be automatically reflected in any Web page based upon the style sheet </li></ul>
  • 17. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) <ul><li>SOAP is an XML-based communication protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>SOAP uses XML Features. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose to support system communications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When a SOAP client or server sends a message, it wraps the XML content in an outer XML document. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A SOAP message is simply an XML document that provides a messaging wrapper around the XML payload. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The message has an Envelope element that identifies the message boundary and includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an optional Header element (containing meta-data, system-level data or other auxiliary information); and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a Body element, containing the XML payload. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • 19. <ul><li>SOAP is on issues such as routing of SOAP messages encapsulated in HTTP. </li></ul><ul><li>It guarantees reliable data transfer </li></ul><ul><li>firewall traversal and not on the semantics of application-specific data it conveys . </li></ul><ul><li>SOAP provides the framework by which application-specific information may be conveyed in an extensible manner. </li></ul>Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • 20. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Depicting Encapsulation
  • 21. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • 22. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • 23. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • 24. Web services Description Language (WSDL)
  • 25. Web services Description Language (WSDL)
  • 26. WSDL usage <ul><ul><li>WSDL offers a standard way to abstractly describe the operations and messages offering as the service interface definition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These descriptions are bound to a specific network protocol and message format to create an endpoint. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides information such as the data type definitions, operations to be performed, service binding information and the address information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It stands as an agreement between the provider and consumer of the service. </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. WSDL Roles By employing WSDL standard, organizations are sharing the same standards for data description and connection protocols, which to them reduce application development time and cost and facilitate the integration. The consistent interface and infrastructure reuse can also simplify integration with other services. This enables tighter business relationships more efficient business processes. Thus increase customers’ satisfactions and gives organisation competitive advantages
  • 28. Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>UDDI is a platform-independent, XML-based for worldwide web services directory over the network </li></ul><ul><li>UDDI is an XML based web service directory which serves as public UDDI, for listing global businesses and their services on the internet or private UDDI within their private network. It is sometime refer to as yellow page, white page and green page. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on this, service consumers or requesters search and bind to the existing services </li></ul>
  • 29. Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) <ul><ul><li>Allow businesses to public themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow businesses to locate each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White Pages — General Information: name, address, and contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow Pages — industrial categorizations: index of Product categories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green Pages — technical information about services exposed by the business: trading rule, network description </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 30. How UDDI Works UDDI Registry 3 . Registry operator assigns a unique identifier to each service and business registration Marketplaces, search engines, and business apps query the registry to discover services at other companies 4 . Service Type Registrations SW companies, standards bodies, and programmers populate the registry with descriptions of different types of services 1 . Business Registrations Business uses this data to facilitate easier integration with each other over the Web 5 . Source: International Business Machines Corporation . Businesses populate the registry with descriptions of the services they support 2 .
  • 32. Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) <ul><ul><li>This directory is compiled based on business needs and is mapped to the actual technical information stored in a WSDL. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UDDI enables developers and businesses to publish and locate web services on a network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This enables businesses to quickly, easily and dynamically find and transact with one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UDDI simplifies the process of creating B2B relationships, thus increase the collaboration among customers, service providers and intermediaries (Deitel et al. , 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. Business Benefits of Web services Reduce the cost of operations Leverage the best products and services of others as needed Find and use others' best processes without today's lengthy negotiations Save on business process integration costs Connect dynamically with partners, at will, and execute transactions in real time without time-consuming manual processes Reduce the up-front cost of changing business models to gain advantage in the market Be able to change your business without changing your systems Reduce the cost of development and the time required to implement solutions Create Web services from your existing applications and processes Find best-of-breed services from others and dynamically adding them to your applications without custom coding Make use of expertise not available internally, while you stay focused on what you do best Increase revenue
  • 34. Business Roles being Pursued Service Requester User of Service (Business/Consumer): Integration of web services with intention to reduce operational costs or improve flexibility of choice. Business Model: Aggregator or to improve efficiencies to increase profit Service Provider Producer of Service Offerings Business Revenue Model: Transactional, Subscription, Lease Registry / Broker Provider of Directory Intelligent directory supporting searches and service policy Business Revenue Model: Registration, Advertising, additional value add services Registrar Provider of advanced registration and search services into a Registry Business Revenue Model: Registration Aggregator/Portal Service provider of combined services Intermediary. Such a company would be a Web Services Service Provider Business Revenue Model: Registration, Transactional, Subscription
  • 35. Business scenario A company called VCK Inc., which manufactures certain food products and markets in the Victoria State.- Melbourne The company is headquartered in Melbourne. VCK Inc., wants to publish its Inventory Availability Web Service, so that its vendors can see online inventory. VCK Inc. decides to publish the Web Services Technical scenario For UDDI business registration, VCK Inc. uses a tool such as IBM iseries, or Java Message for XML (JMX) to create an XML file used to describe a business entity and its Web Services. The information that will be provided in a UDDI business registration will consist of three components: “white pages” which include address and contact information, “ yellow pages ” which include business categorizations and “green pages”, the technical information about services that are provided by the business. Then the web services can be published in the UDDI registry under Food manufacturing domain.
  • 36. <ul><li>The POC Web services Application </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>A POC manufacturing company producing different brands of PCs plans </li></ul><ul><li>to automate its customer enquiry and sales order processing system by </li></ul><ul><li>exposing these functions as Web services for its customers. </li></ul><ul><li>It also automates its supply chain process by dynamically interacting with </li></ul><ul><li>part vendors for purchase of computer accessories. </li></ul><ul><li>The manufacturer, customer, and vendor applications could be behind a </li></ul><ul><li>firewall and possibly be running on different platforms and/or using </li></ul><ul><li>a language of their choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly, an architecture merely based on component technologies cannot </li></ul><ul><li>meet the desired objectives. To illustrate the interoperability among </li></ul><ul><li>these diverse systems, the different vendor applications in this POC have </li></ul><ul><li>been developed using the Java/J2EE, Java/Axis, and C#/Microsoft .NET platforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer using Web services to interact with each one of these vendors identically. </li></ul>
  • 37. Typical business scenario.
  • 38. <ul><li>The process flow </li></ul><ul><li>The manufacturing company interacts with several part vendors to procure </li></ul><ul><li>computer accessories </li></ul><ul><li>It performs a search on the public registry (logically similar to the way a search engine </li></ul><ul><li>searches the Web for key words) and dynamically locates potential vendors on the </li></ul><ul><li>Internet to obtain price quotes to select the best vendor. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts vendors make themselves known to the outside world by </li></ul><ul><li>'publishing' their services in a public XML Registry. </li></ul><ul><li>The registry typically contains brief information about the company, </li></ul><ul><li>the various services they offer, the endpoint URL for Web services interaction, </li></ul><ul><li>type of binding supported, and possibly an external link for extra information. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations are listed in the registry based on standard classification schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>The parts vendors expose functions for providing information such as parts detail </li></ul><ul><li>and price quote as Web services. </li></ul>
  • 39. <ul><li>Business benefits and interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Customers or dealers trade directly by interacting with the manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>company using Web services to view product list, view order status, </li></ul><ul><li>place orders, and so forth for the purchase of PCs. </li></ul><ul><li>This eventually results in substantial cost reductions in terms of time </li></ul><ul><li>and resources for the manufacturer. In addition, it also provides improved </li></ul><ul><li>customer service and helps customers automate their systems as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The manufacturer application features administrative functions such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product and customer maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>View and approve customer orders and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get best quote and part details from vendors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The manufacturing company exposes functions such as customer/product enquiry, </li></ul><ul><li>order status, place order, and so on as Web services for consumption </li></ul><ul><li>by the customers/dealers. </li></ul>
  • 40. Example of the Purchase Order that is encapsulated in SOAP for VCK company <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?>  <soap-env:Envelope xmlns:soap-env= &quot;;>   <soap-env:Header>    <From>JOHNS</From>    <To>Manufacturer</To>   </soap-env:Header>   <soap-env:Body>   <PurchaseOrder custId=&quot;JOHNS&quot; poRef=&quot;JOHNS1048316652804&quot; poDate=&quot;20030322&quot; poValue=&quot;25235&quot;>    <billTo country=&quot;AE&quot;>     <name>John Simon</name>     <street>P.O Box 00001</street>     <city>Dubai</city>     <state>Dubai</state>     <zip>00001</zip>    </billTo>       
  • 41. <shipTo country=&quot;AE&quot;>     <name>John Simon</name>     <street>P.O Box 00001</street>     <city>Dubai</city>     <state>Dubai</state>     <zip>00001</zip>    </shipTo> <orderItems>     <orderItem partNum=&quot;2512EA&quot;>      <productName>Presario-2512EA Laptop PC</productName>      <quantity>2</quantity>      <price>5725.0</price>      <desc>Intel-P4, 2.5GHz, 256MB RAM, 40GB HDD, 15&quot; XGA</desc>     </orderItem>     <orderItem partNum=&quot;2125EA&quot;>      <productName>Presario-2125EA Laptop PC</productName>      <quantity>3</quantity>      <price>4595.0</price>      <desc>Intel-M Celeron, 2.0GHz, 256MB RAM, 30GB HDD, 15&quot; XGA</desc>     </orderItem>    </orderItems>   </PurchaseOrder>  </soap-env:Body> </soap-env:Envelope>
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