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  THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA. Objects and Specimens. Objects - concrete materials such as plants, animals, tools, and artifacts . Specimens - a part or aspect of some item that is a typical sample of the character of others in its same class or group
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THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA Objects and Specimens Objects - concrete materials such as plants, animals, tools, and artifacts Specimens - a part or aspect of some item that is a typical sample of the character of others in its same class or group - enable us to learn many things that would otherwise be unobtainable Points to Consider in Using Objects and Specimens for Teaching
  • Develop a purpose for using them
  • Provide opportunities for students to work with or to manipulate
  • Present just enough at a time
  • Present in a dramatic way
  • Advantages Teaching 1. less abstract, more concrete 2. attracts attention 3. students become more familiar with objects Limitations 1. need bigger storage 2. prone to possible damage 3. some have limitation in availability Models and Mock-ups Teaching Models - modified real things, reproductions of costly or delicate items - replicas of real objects which may be larger or smaller than the real thing - can be made to show interior view of objects and they can be simplified to any extent desired in order that the basic concept represented may be communicated most adequately Varied Purposes of Models Teaching 1. when real objects are too small or too large to bring into the classroom 2. to present subject matter involving the past and the future 3. physical inaccessibility 4.abstract construction 5. to explain processes Types of Models Teaching 1. Solid Models - used mainly for recognizing external features 2. Cross-section Model / Cut-away Models Teaching - show the internal structures 3.Construction Models Teaching - models which can be assembled and disassembled to show relationship of parts to a whole 4. Working Models Teaching - indicate how the things being represented operate Mock-up Teaching - arrangement of a real device or associated devices, displayed in such a way that representation of reality is created - may be simplified in order to emphasize certain features - a special model where parts or a model is singled out, heightened, and magnified in order to focus on that part Advantages Teaching
  • Learners can examine which may not be easy with the real object
  • Learners can handle and operate
  • Create high interest and permit close-up observation of how it works
  • Can provide learning experiences that real objects cannot provide
  • Can illustrate basic operation of a real device and provide important details
  • Allow independent study
  • Make classroom discussion more effective
  • Limitations Teaching
  • Require tedious work
  • Expensive
  • Might distort some real concepts
  • Big or heavy models may be difficult to handle for actual lecture
  • Diorama Teaching
  • of Greek origin which means “to see through”
  • a 3D representation of events, ideas or concepts against a scenic background
  • miniature scene in 3D treatment meant to replicate reality
  • Principal Parts of Diorama Teaching Painted Background Objects Case or Stage 3D Middle and Foreground Advantages Teaching
  • Have intrinsic value
  • Allow us to compare past and present conditions
  • Help us make connections to the real world
  • Develops students’ creativity
  • Can be viewed, handled, and examined by students
  • Adds interest and meaning to the lesson
  • Limitations Teaching
  • Demands a bigger space in terms of use and storage
  • Expensive
  • Easily damaged
  • Puppets Teaching
  • are artificial figures whose movements are controlled by a person
  • are moved by hand, strings, wires or rods
  • are made to represent a person, animal, plant or an object
  • Types of Puppets Teaching 1. Shadow Puppets - 2D in nature, normally controlled by rods that are much thinner than the typical ones that are used to support the rod puppet - makes use of a translucent screen and a light source 2. Rod Puppets Teaching - flat, cut-out figures tacked on a stick, with one or more movable parts and operated from below the stage level by wire or slender sticks 3.Hand Puppets Teaching - made to slip over the hand like a glove - puppet’s head is operated by the forefinger, the little finger and thumb are used to animate the puppet’s hands 4.Glove-and-finger Puppets Teaching - make use of old gloves to which small costumed figures are attached 5.Marionettes Teaching - suspended and controlled by a number of strings, plus sometimes a central rod attached to a control bar held from above - generally constructed of wood with articulating joints that replicate those of human beings - requires greater manipulative control than an finger, glove or rod puppet Advantages Teaching
  • Boost active participation among students
  • Stirring and attention-getting
  • Fascination of the inanimate objects
  • Enjoyable and spontaneous learning experience
  • Students become more creative
  • Limitations
  • Time consuming
  • Expensive
  • Demands extra effort
  • Can compete with the teacher
  • Principles in Choosing TeachingPuppet Play for Teaching
  • Do not use puppets for plays that can be done just as well or better by another dramatic means
  • Puppet play must be based on actions rather than words
  • Keep plays short
  • Do not omit the possibilities of music and dancing as part of the show
  • Adapt in all respect to your audience
  • Do not hesitate to adapt puppet play
  • Resource Person as an Instructional Medium Resource Person – someone invited to talk about something Consider the following when inviting and using a resource speaker: 1. engage the expert 2. clarify the purposes of the visit 3. subject should be of educational relevance and value to the students Consider the following when inviting and using a resource speaker (cont.): 4. speaker should not tend to disrupt the educational program 5. info to be discussed should be appropriate to the age and maturity of students 6. teacher should remain in the classroom throughout the presentation Introducing the Speaker/s speaker (cont.): 1.Prepare what you are going to say 2. Follow the TIS formula T – topic / title of speaker’s talk I – importance of the topic S – speaker’s outstanding qualifications 3. Announce speaker’s name distinctly and clearly 4. Be enthusiastic about the speaker Things to Remember when Invited as a Resource Speaker speaker (cont.):
  • Restrict subject to fit the time at your disposal
  • Arrange ideas in sequence
  • Enumerate points as you make them
  • Compare the strange with the familiar
  • Turn a fact into a picture
  • Avoid technical terms
  • Use appropriate media
  • Speak with contagious enthusiasm
  • Show respect and affection to your audience
  • Begin in a friendly way
  • When delivering the talk….. speaker (cont.):
  • Crash thoroughly your shell of self-consciousness
  • Don’t try to imitate others
  • Converse with your audience
  • Put your heart into your speaking
  • Practice making your voice strong and flexible
  • Advantages speaker (cont.):
  • Less preparation on the part of the teacher
  • Thorough discussion of the topic
  • It might add enthusiasm to the audience if the speaker is good
  • Limitations
  • Hassle in searching for the suitable speaker
  • It might confuse the audience if the speaker is not good enough
  • Less enthusiasm from the audience if the speaker is boring
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