The Eiffel Tower, general overview

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  The presentation was made for an open lesson at the university. I hope it will help you) !!! There is an additional speech exactly for this presentation !!! The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets. The risk of accident was great as, unlike modern skyscrapers, the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use of movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died. The tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889, and opened on 6 May. The tower was much criticized by the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore. For example, novelist Guy de Maupassant, who claimed to hate the tower, supposedly ate lunch in the Tower's restaurant every day. When asked why, he answered that it was the one place in Paris where one could not see the structure. Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years; it was to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down, but as the tower proved valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit. Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps. The parts to repair them were allegedly impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 German soldiers had to climb to the top to hoist the swastika, but the flag was so large that it blew away just a few hours later, and was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. The iron structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes, while the entire structure, including non-metal components, is approximately 10,000 tonnes. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun. Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986–1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower. Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tonnes of paint every seven years to protect it from rust. More than 200,000,000 people have visited the tower since its construction in 1889, including 6,719,200 in 2006. The tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world.
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Transcript
  • 1. General information
  • 2.  Construction of the Tower;  Interesting facts about the Tower;  Some documental facts;  Tourism and popularity.
  • 3.  The tower was much criticized by the public;  Permission for the tower to stand for 20 years; it was to be dismantled in 1909;  The lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb.
  • 4.  The height of the Eiffel Tower varies by 15 cm due to temperature;  The iron structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tons;  Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy- two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people.
  • 5.  The tower has become the most prominent symbol of Paris;  The tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world.
  • 6. Thanks for attention!
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