Present perfect

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  1. VS 2. VS 3. FORM Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Affirmative I have played He has played I have been playing He has been playing Negative I haven’t…
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  • 1. VS
  • 2. VS
  • 3. FORM Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Affirmative I have played He has played I have been playing He has been playing Negative I haven’t played He hasn’t played I haven’t been playing He hasn’t been playing Interrogative Have I played? Has he played? Have I been playing? Has he been playing?  Remember that stative verbs are not used in Continuous tenses!
  • 4. We use the Present Perfect Simple tense to talk about: • experiences I have visited London many times in my life • indefinite, unknown, unfinished time They have bought a new car. • a past action with results in the present I have studied a lot and now I am tired. Dad has broken his glasses, so he can’t read now. • actions where there is a connection between the past & the present He has written 16 books. (He may write more books.) I have been to Athens I have gone to Athens went and came back went and I am still there
  • 5. for + a period of time: for 3 years, for 2 months, for 5 days, for ages, for a long time, for five minutes, for 2 hours (I have lived in London for 20 years.) since + the moment when sth started: since yesterday, since last month, since 2012, since Monday, since last weekend, since I was eight (I have lived in London since 1990.) ever is used in questions: Have you ever tried any extreme sports? ever is also used in affirmative sentences with a positive meaning: This is the best film I have ever seen. never is used in affirmative sentences with a negative meaning: I have never tried any extreme sports. (× It is wrong to say: I haven’t never…) just is used to describe an action finished a couple of minutes ago: I have just finished my homework. already is used to describe an action finished at some time in the past: I have already seen that film. yet is used in questions or in negative sentences at the end: I haven’t finished my homework yet. Have you washed the dishes yet? More expressions: before, so far, once, many times, several times, always, lately, recently, still, how long, today, this week / month / …, it’s the first time, it’s the best
  • 6. Present Perfect Simple Simple Past indefinite, unknown, unfinished time He’s bought a new car. definite, known, finished time He bought this car in 2005. an action which started in the past and continues to present She has worked here for five years. an action which started in the past and finished in the past She worked here between 1999 and 2010. a past action with results in the present, or connected to the present John has broken his leg, so he can’t play football. (It is still broken.) no results in the present, we refer to the past only John broke his leg last month. (He is fine now.) before I have seen this film before. ago I saw this film a week ago. today I have tidied my room today. yesterday I tidied my room yesterday. this week We have written a test this week. last week We wrote a test last week. How long How long have you been here? When When did you get here? Note: present perfect + since + simple past I haven’t seen Mary since I came back from my holiday.
  • 7. We use the Present Perfect Continuous tense to talk about : • an action which started in the past and continues till now with an emphasis on duration He’s been sleeping for two hours now. • an action which started in the past and has just finished with results in the present She’s tired. She’s been training hard. Time expressions: how long, for, since, all day / week / …
  • 8. Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous emphasis on the action She has listened to a new CD. emphasis on the duration of the action She has been listening to a new CD all evening. action finished I’ve read the book you lent me. action unfinished I’ve been reading the book you lent me. I’ve got another 50 pages to read. emphasis on number, how many times sb has done sth I have written three letters so far. emphasis on a singular action with duration I have been writing this letter all morning. to talk about how long when we view sth as permanent I’ve worked here for thirty years. it is often used to show that sth is temporary I usually work in Alexandroupoli but I’ve been working in Komotini for the last three weeks.
  • 9. I lived in London. I live in London. I’ve lived in London all my life.
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