Module 3 Systems archetypes

Please download to get full document.

View again

All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
 9
 
  1. SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES: Generic Systems Structures Professor Ockie Bosch Dr Nam Nguyen 2. Systems Archetypes (SAs)  Generic systems models representing a wide range of…
Related documents
Share
Transcript
  • 1. SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES: Generic Systems Structures Professor Ockie Bosch Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 2. Systems Archetypes (SAs)  Generic systems models representing a wide range of situations;  High-level map of dynamic processes;  ‘Reveal an incredibly elegant simplicity underlying the complexity of management issues …’ (Senge, 2006, p.93);  Systems archetypes will always suggest areas of high and low leverage change (Senge, 2006). © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 3. “Shifting the Burden”: Structure (adapted from Senge, 2006; Maani and Cavana, 2007) S Side Effect Symptomatic ‘Solution’/Quick Fix Problem Symptom S Fundamental Solution O O R B1 O S B2 © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 4. “Shifting the Burden”: Summary  A short-term ‘solution’ is used to correct a problem, with immediate positive results;  Fundamental long-term corrective measures are used less and less;  Management principle: Focus on the fundamental solution. If symptomatic solution is imperative, use it to gain time while working towards the fundamental solution. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen (adapted from Senge, 2006)
  • 5. “Shifting the Burden”: Example (Parent) Buying lollies B1 (Children) Crying for lollies S O B2 ‘Educating’ the S children O Delay Asking for lollies every time R S O © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 6. “Fixes that Fail”: Structure (adapted from Senge, 2006; Maani and Cavana, 2007) Problem Fix B R Unintended Consequence S O S S © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 7. “Fixes that Fail”: Summary (adapted from Continuous Improvement Associates, 2003; Senge, 2006)  An action (a ‘fix’), effective in the short-term, has unforseen long-term consequences which may require even more use of the same ‘fix’;  Typically a result of addressing the symptoms of problems, rather than the root causes;  Management principle: Look for root causes that are responsible for the symptoms. When addressing symptoms, look for ways to reduce/mitigate negative impacts. Take action by relieving immediate pain, but continue working towards finding long-term solutions that will address the root causes of the problem. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 8. “Fixes that Fail”: Example Pest (cane beetle) S Fix B (cane toad) O R “Feral species” S S © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 9. “Tragedy of the Commons”: Structure (adapted from Senge, 2006; Maani and Cavana, 2007) R1 S A’s Activity Net Gain for A R2 S S B’s Activity Net Gain for B S S Resource Limit S S O Total Activity Gain per Individual Activity B1 B2 S O © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 10. “Tragedy of the Commons”: Summary  Individuals use a commonly available but limited resource solely on the basis of individual needs;  The resource is either significantly depleted or entirely exhausted;  Management principle: Manage the ‘commons’ either through educating everyone and creating forms of self-regulation and peer pressure, or through an official regulating mechanism (ideally to be designed by participants). © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen (adapted from Senge, 2006)
  • 11. “Tragedy of the Commons”: Example graduates Source: Ong, 2013 Source: Yen, 2013 © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 12. “Limits to Success/Growth”: Structure (adapted from Senge, 2006; Maani and Cavana, 2007) Constraints Limiting Action Efforts R Performance B S S S S © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen O
  • 13. “Limits to Growth”: Summary  A process feeds on itself to produce a period of accelerated growth or expansion; then  The growth begins to slow and eventually comes to a halt;  Management principle: Do not push on the reinforcing (growth) process, remove (or weaken) the sources of limitations/constraints. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen (adapted from Senge, 2006)
  • 14. “Limits to Growth”: Example Source: Thompson, 2013 S © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 15. Archetypes in the Systems Model of CBBR Nguyen, Bosch et al. (2011). Creating ‘Learning Laboratories’ for SD in Biospheres - A Systems Thinking Approach. SR & BS, 28 (1), pp 51-62. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 16. Tourism development: ‘Limits to Growth’ S O R B Tourism revenue Number of tourists Constraints Attraction of Cat Ba island S S O Nguyen and Bosch (2013). A Systems Thinking Approach to identify Leverage Points for Sustainability... SR & BS, 30 (2), pp 104-115. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 17. Tourism development: ‘Fixes that Fail’ Number of tourists Staying and catering problems Nguyen and Bosch (2013). A Systems Thinking Approach to identify Leverage Points for Sustainability... SR & BS, 30 (2), pp 104-115. Hotels and restaurants Pollution S S O S S B R © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 18. Carrying capacities: ‘Tragedy of S Revenue per each industry B B Nguyen and Bosch (2013). A Systems Thinking Approach to identify Leverage Points for Sustainability... SR & BS, 30 (2), pp 104-115. Investment in tourism Tourism revenue Total investment activities Investment in agriculture Agriculture revenue Carrying capacities S S S S S S O S S R R © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen the Commons’
  • 19. International aid: ‘Shifting the Burden’ International $ Problems in Cat Ba Long-term solutions Dependance on international assistance S Nguyen and Bosch (2013). A Systems Thinking Approach to identify Leverage Points for Sustainability... SR & BS, 30 (2), pp 104-115. S O S O O B B R © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • 20. Class exercises of Systems Archetypes  Study the other SAs (reading provided in class);  Work in groups and present two examples of SAs (either related to the group project or generic). © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  • Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks