L4 research questions and hypotheses

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  1. Research Methods Lecture 4Step Two : Research Questions and Hypotheses 2. Determining what research to do :FINERF – FeasibleI – InterestingN – NovelE…
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  • 1. Research Methods Lecture 4Step Two : Research Questions and Hypotheses
  • 2. Determining what research to do :FINERF – FeasibleI – InterestingN – NovelE – EthicalR – RelevantUsing FINER, you should be able identify or frame anactual research question.
  • 3. Statement of purpose• A sentence which states what you want to learn about in a research.• It other words, it is your aim.• For example :• The aim of this research if to find out how computer assisted learning can aid in language acquisition.
  • 4. Discussion : Discuss if the 5 sentences below relateto one’s statement of purpose and if they are“acceptable” in a piece of academic writing.• I want to learn about what is being done by our government to stop air pollution.• "I want to know how teenage pregnancy affects young fathers and young mothers differently.“• The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of Chiles agrarian reform on the lives of rural peasants.
  • 5. Framing your statement of purposeSome key phrases you can use:•"This paper examines . . .,"•"The aim of this paper is to . . .,"•"The purpose of this essay is to . . ."
  • 6. Research question• Formulating the research question is an important step in research.• By wording your research question, you will be directed towards what you are to be focusing your research on.• Therefore, a research question must always be in question form.
  • 7. Study the relationship between the different itemsbelow and explain to the class. Types of research question Type of research conducted Types of statistics used
  • 8. Types of questionsWith a partner, frame:A descriptive questionA relational question Types of QuestionsA causal questionBased your discussion onthe topic :Social media and teenagers Descriptive Relational Causal questions questions questions
  • 9. Descriptive research questions• Are teenagers spending too much time on social media?• What is the age in which teenagers spend the most time on social media?• What is the main factor for social media addiction among teenagers?• What is the age group in which social media is most popular in?
  • 10. Relational research question• Is there a relationship between the age and the number of hours spent on social media?• Are teenagers who spend more time on social media spending less time on studies?• Is there a relationship between the hours spent on social media and academic results?
  • 11. Causal research question• What is the main difference in lifestyle between the above and below 16 year olds that explains the difference?• What makes the social media so attractive to teenagers?• Does time spent on social media affect the attention span of teenagers?• Is there a difference in academic results in teenagers spending more than 5 hours on social media?
  • 12. Descriptive question• Focused on describing characteristics of a population.• The statistics used are normally descriptive statistics.• For example : – Sleeping habits of students – Qualities of a good manager – Characteristics of a schizophrenic
  • 13. Relational question• Focused on looking at relationships present among variables.• Normally looks at associative statistics• For example : – The relationship between reading and writing scores – The relationship between alcohol readings and severity of accidents.
  • 14. Causal question• Looking at if a change in one thing affects another.• This requires an individual to control the extraneous variable and manipulate the explanatory variable.• Usually utilizes inferential statistics (chi-squares, anova, t-tests)Discussion :Think of a causal question for the topic: Personality traits and success in studies
  • 15. Steps to developing your research question1. Identify your topic2. Write down preliminary thoughts about your topic3. Search the literature for gaps4. Explore your thoughts on the gaps5. Convert your thoughts into questions.
  • 16. Constructing your hypothesis• A good hypothesis hinges on having a good research question.• Unless a research is exploratory in nature, most research studies start with a hypothesis.• A hypothesis is a researcher’s informed prediction of the results of a study• A hypothesis is normally formed based on previous research and must have a strong logical rationale.
  • 17. Connecting the dots Discuss and provide an example Connecting for this Example : •The study is aimed at looking at Statement of whether gender is a key influence purpose in determining one’s pay in the education industry. •Are men paid more than women in the education industry? Research question •There is no difference between the pay for men and women in the education industry. Hypothesis
  • 18. Constructing your research report• Identify the statement of purpose for your study.• Formulate your research question (s)• Formulate your hypothesis based on your research question.
  • 19. Is Singapore a gracious society• Introductory paragraph :• You will give a brief overview of Singapore and the Singaporean society• Statement of problem• Although Singapore has achieved developed status, yet much has been said about so called “graciousness” of Singaporeans. The study thus aims to identify and isolate if Singaporeans are indeed lacking in “graciousness”.• Email : pearl_wong@easb.edu.sg
  • 20. • As such, the study aims to answer three relevant questions to the main topic which are:• A• B• C• It is hypothesized that hypothesis A, hypothesis B and hypothesis C
  • 21. Literature review
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