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  • 3. IINNTTRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN Indian painting has a very long tradition and history in Indian art. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of pre-historic times, the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka , some of them from before 5500 BC. India's Buddhist literature is replete with examples of texts which describe palaces of the army and the aristocratic class embellished with paintings, but the paintings of the Ajanta Caves are the most significant of the few survivals.
  • 4. Indian paintings provide an aesthetic continuum that extends from the early civilisation to the present day. From being essentially religious in purpose in the beginning, Indian painting has evolved over the years to become a fusion of various cultures and traditions.
  • 5. SSoommee GGeennrreess ooff IInnddiiaann ppaaiinnttiinngg Murals Miniature painting Eastern Indian painting Western Indian painting Mughal painting Rajput painting Tanjore painting Modern Indian painting
  • 7. Paintings of Ajanta caves are mainly based on the episodes drawn from the life of Lord Buddha . Ajanta caves are the treasure house of delicate paintings. Some of them also portray scenes from Jataka tales. The temples are excavated out of batholitic cliffs on the inner side of a seventy-foot valley in the Wagurna River vale, at a site where beauty dropped her image.
  • 8. BBooddhhiissaattttvvaa AAvvaallookkiitteesshhvvaarraa,, CCaavvee 11
  • 9. FFeeaattuurreess ooff PPaaiinnttiinnggss ooff AAjjaannttaa • The Ajanta paintings stresses on religious romanticism with lyric quality, a reflection of the view that every aspect of life has an equal value in the spiritual sense and as an aspect of the divine. • The paintings are done by covering the rough surface of the wall with a layer of clay or cow dung mixed with chopped straw or animal hair. When this has been smoothed and levelled, it is given a varnish of fine white clay or gypsum and it is on this ground that the painting is done.
  • 10. CCeeiilliinngg PPaaiinnttiinnggss ooff AAjjaannttaa • The most famous paintings at Ajanta caves are in `Cave I`. The shape of the cave is a square hall with the roof supported by rows of pillars. • There is a rock cut image of a seated Buddha at the back of the shrine. The most unusual feature of the cave is parts of the complete decoration of the flat ceiling. There are scenes carved from the life of Lord Buddha as well as a number of ornamental motifs.
  • 11. • In the paintings of Ajanta there are beautifully drawn female figures of dusky complexion wearing towering head-dresses that strongly resembles the sophisticated mukuta, crowning the Bodhisattva himself. • . This is a representation of the Shakti or female of the Bodhisattva, one of the many indications of the intrusions of Hindu concepts into Buddhism . • The paintings of the ceiling of Cave I at Ajanta is executed in a more flat, enhancing style and the space is divided into a number of adjacent panels square and rectangular in form, which are filled with subjects and showy designs. • The extremely restricted palette used here, and the silhouetting of the figures against a light background sprinkled with rosettes, give the panel a very flat, textile-like character.
  • 13. WWaallll PPaaiinnttiinnggss ooff AAjjaannttaa • The fragments of wall decoration surviving in the porch of Cave XVII are unfortunately more damaged than the paintings of Cave I. This shrine bears an inscription of the last quarter of the fifth century, which may be assumed to correspond with the period of the wall-paintings.
  • 14. • Another painting in the wall of Cave XVII exemplify a portion of the Visvantara Jataka in which the chief episode demonstrates the princely hero announcing to his wife the news of his expulsion from his father`s kingdom. At the right of the masterpiece, in a pavilion with orange walls and red pillars, swarthy lord grasps his swooning companion; her drooping pose is pronounced by the bend of her head, and the relaxation of every limb emphasises her agony.
  • 15. • Another magnificent painting in Cave XVII is a picture of a king talking smilingly to a golden goose. Even the painting of mother and child before Buddha draws attention. This painting is a fine representation of simplicity and poverty.
  • 16. RRAAJJPPUUTT PPAAIINNTTIINNGG An 18th century Rajput painting by the artist Nihâl Chand, chief painter at the court of Kishangarh. Krishna and his companions are by far the most popular theme of Rajput painting.
  • 17. • Rajput painting flowed primarily from the indigenous Western Indian style of manuscript illustration that had flourished in the 14th and 15th centuries, but was also greatly influenced by Mughal painting. • Rajput painting usually took the form of miniatures in manuscripts or on single sheets kept in albums, although examples of this style can also be found on the walls of Rajput palaces, forts, and mansions. • Popular themes include the life of the god Krishna; scenes from Hindu epics; pictorial representations of the ragamala (musical modes); women, lovers and romance; portraits; and court and hunting scenes.
  • 18. Rajput painting can be divided into two styles: the Rajasthani style, associated with the Rajput courts in Rajasthan, and the Pahari style, associated with the Rajput courts of the Himalayan foothills.
  • 19. TThhee RRaajjaasstthhaannii SSttyyllee • Emerging in the last decades of the 16th century, Rajasthani art is usually divided into four major schools, each centered on different courts and based on differences in artistic style. • These four schools are the Mewar school, the Marwar school, the Hadoti school, and the Dhundar school.
  • 20. • The Mewar school is associated with the courts of Chavand, Nathwara, Devgarh, Udaipur, and Sawar, and is characterized by simplicity and vivid colours. It produced a large number of devotional paintings for the pilgrim trade .
  • 21. The Marwar school is associated with the courts of Kishangarh, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, and Ghanerao courts and is best known for its fine miniature portraits from the second half of the 17th century and a large body of highly stylized and colorful painting from the 19th century
  • 22. The Hadoti school is associated with the courts of Kota, Bundi, and Jhalawar and is remarkable for its vivid portrayal of movement, strength, and vitality, best seen in depictions of hunting and sports scenes.
  • 23. The Dhundar school is associated with the courts of Amber, Jaipur, Shekhawati, and Uniara, and is characterized by formal but rich portraits, very large paintings of the deeds of Krishna, and Western influences in the 19th century.
  • 24. TThhee PPaahhaarrii SSttyyllee The Pahari style of miniature painting and book illustration developed in the independent states of the Himalayan foothills between the 17th and 18th centuries and began to decline after 1800. This style consists of two schools: the Basohli school and the Kangra school.
  • 25. The Basohli school flourished towards the close of the 17th century and is best known for its bold use of color, intense emotionality, stylized facial types shown in profile with prominent eyes, and distinctive depictions of jewellry.
  • 26. The Kangra school emerged in the mid-18th century as the Basohli style began to fade and is characterized by curving lines, calmer colours, and delicate lyricism .
  • 27. MMuugghhaall PPaaiinnttiinngg
  • 28. HHiissttoorryy ooff MMuugghhaall PPaaiinnttiinngg • Indian Mughal paintings originated during the rule of Mughal Emperor, Humayun (1530-1540). When he came back to India from the exile, he also brought along two excellent Persian artists, Mir-Sayyid Ali and Abd-us-samad. • The Mughal paintings of India revolved around themes, like battles, court scenes, receptions, legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, portraits, etc. The Victoria and Albert Museums of London house a large and impressive collection of Mughal paintings.
  • 29. GGrroowwtthh ooff MMuugghhaall PPaaiinnttiinngg Mughal paintings of India developed as well as prospered under the rule of Mughal Emperors, Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
  • 30. UUnnddeerr AAkkbbaarr Mughal painting experienced large-scale growth under the reign of Emperor Akbar. During that time, hundreds of artists used to paint under the direction of the two Persian artists. Since the Emperor was fond of tales, one can see the paintings mainly being based on the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Persian epics. Mughal paintings also started illustrating an enhanced naturalism, with animal tales,
  • 31. UUnnddeerr JJaahhaannggiirr  Emperor Jahangir reigned from 1605 to 1627 and extended great support to various art forms, especially paintings. This period saw more and more refinement in brushwork, along with the use of much lighter and subdued colors.  The main themes of the Mughal paintings revolved around the events from Jahangir's own life, along with portraits, birds, flowers, animals, etc.  One of the most popular examples of Mughal paintings of this time include the pictorial illustrations of the Jehangir-nama, the biography of Emperor Jahangir.
  • 32. UUnnddeerr SShhaahh JJaahhaann The grace and refinement of the Jahangir period was seen at the time of Emperor Shah Jahan (1628-1658). However, the sensitivity of the paintings was replaced by coldness and rigidity. The themes of that time revolved around musical parties, lovers on terraces and gardens, ascetics gathered around a fire, etc.
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