inclusive growth methodology

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  Beyond economic growth
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  • 2. Coughlan and Lehmann (2009) mencatat bahwa lebih dari 80 persen penduduk dunia tinggal di negara-negara dengan selisih pendapatan yang cukup besar. Sekitar 40 persen penduduk paling miskin di dunia hanya menikmati 5 persen dari total pendapatan global, sementara 75 persen dari pendapatan global dimiliki hanya oleh 20 persen penduduk paling kaya.
  • 3. Dengan rata-rata pertumbuhan sebesar 5,8 persen per tahun selama periode 2004-2012; hanya rata-rata sebanyak 0,35 juta pengangguran setiap tahunnya yang mampu ditekan, atau 0,45 persen pertahun (dari 9,86 persen di tahun 2004 menjadi 6,23 persen di tahun 2012). Penurunan jumlah penduduk miskin tampaknya lebih besar. Pada periode yang sama, jumlah penduduk miskin menyusut rata-rata sebanyak 0,94 juta jiwa per tahun, atau 0,62 persen pertahun (dari 16,66 persen di tahun 2004 menjadi 11,66 persen di tahun 2012).
  • 4. Pertumbuhan ekonomi tidak dapat serta merta menyelesaikan permasalahan kemiskinan, dan pengangguran. Bahkan ketimpangan pendapatan dalam masyarakat semakin melebar. Akibatnya, kualitas pertumbuhan ekonomi dipertanyakan. pendapat Ali dan Zhuong (2007) mengenai konsep inclusive growth sebagai pertumbuhan ekonomi yang difokuskan pada penciptaan peluang ekonomi dan memastikan diakses oleh semua
  • 5. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) defines inclusive growth as one that creates economic opportunities and ensures that everyone has access to these opportunities. This concept was born in response to observations that rapid economic expansion in Asia in the last two decades has not sufficiently contributed to the realization of crucial development goals, such as reducing poverty and income inequality, promoting food security and improving the welfare and condition of millions of poor people in the region.
  • 6. Pertumbuhan inclusive Menurut Terry McKinley (2010), ciri dari pertumbuhan yang inklusif adalah: i. Pertumbuhan yang dirasakan oleh semua penduduk. ii. Pertumbuhan tersebut sama dengan atau (mungkin) lebih tinggi bagi penduduk miskin. iii. Pertumbuhan harus bersifat inklusif di semua sektor. iv. Inklusif berarti kecenderungan persamaan kesempatan penduduk semakin berkurang. v. Kesenjangan kemiskinan harus berkurang dari waktu ke waktu. vi. Peran langsung pemerintah semakin berkurang.
  • 7. Krateria –Inclusive Growth • Growth (a) Real rate of growth of gross domestic product per capita. (b) Share of industry, services, and agriculture in total value added. • Employment (a) Share of the employed in industry from the ILO database. (b) Share of the employed in manufacturing from the ILO database not derived in this exercise. (c) Share of own-account workers and formally unpaid family workers in total employment from the ILO database. (d) Supplementary indicator i.e. the share of workers who are part of households whose income is below the $2.50 per day per person international PPP poverty line. • Economic Infrastructure • (a) Proportion of the population with access to electricity estimated using International Energy Agency data. • (b) Number of mobile phone subscribers per 100 people estimated using the MDG database. • Poverty • (a) The proportion of the population living below nationally determined poverty lines from World Bank or ADB data. • (b) The proportion of the population living below the $2.50 per day per person international poverty line in 2005 prices from World Bank data.
  • 8. Krateria –Inclusive Growth • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Inequality (a) The Gini coefficient. (b) The income share of the poorest 60% of the population using World Bank or ADB data. (c) The income or expenditure gap between rural and urban areas to be developed. (b) Where feasible, the income or expenditure gap among regions or among major ethnic groupings to be developed. Gender Equity (a) The ratio of literate females to literate males among those aged 15–24 years measured with UNESCO sources. (b) The ratio of girls to boys in secondary education measured with UNESCO sources. (c) The percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel derived from UNICEF and WHO sources. (d) The share of women in nonagricultural wage employment derived from ILO sources. Health and Nutrition (a) Under-5 mortality rate, using UNICEF and WHO data. (b) Mortality rate for under age 40, using United Nations Development Programme Human Development Reports. (c) Percentage of those under age 5 years who are underweight, using UNICEF and WHO data. Education (a) net primary enrollment ratio, using UNESCO data. (b) net secondary enrollment ratio, using UNESCO data.
  • 9. Krateria –Inclusive Growth • Sanitation and Water • (a) The proportion of the population with access to safe water, using the World Bank's World Development Indicators. • (b) The proportion of the population with access to adequate sanitation, using the World Bank's World Development Indicators. • Social Protection (Social protection index, Baulch et al. 2008, ADB) • (a) The total expenditures on all social protection programs as a ratio to GDP. • (b) The number of beneficiaries of social protection programs as a ratio to the reference populations for key target groups. • (c) The number of social protection beneficiaries who are poor as a ratio to the total poor population. • (d) The average social protection expenditure for each poor person as a ratio to the poverty line.
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