Fire Hazard Commercial spaces

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  1. Fire Hazards : Safety Measures for Prevention in Commercial Spaces INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN DISASTER MITIGATION AND MANAGEMENT…
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  • 1. Fire Hazards : Safety Measures for Prevention in Commercial Spaces INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN DISASTER MITIGATION AND MANAGEMENT (DM 608) SUBMITTED BY : Ankita Prasun M.Tech- 1st Year Man – Made and Biological Hazards
  • 2. Hazard A situation having potential to harm life, health, property or environment. What is a Fire Hazard ?  Any object, building, plants etc. that could easily catch fire or cause a fire, thereby endangering life, property, health or environment.  One of the greatest threats to a business.  Can start anywhere  Holds the potential to destroy everything coming in its way.
  • 3. How does FIRE ignite ? For Fire, there has to be: 1. Oxygen to sustain combustion 2. Heat to raise the material to its ignition temperature 3. Fuel or Combustible materials A combination of all the above creates FIRE Breaking the above combination prevents FIRE FUEL TYPE SOLID LIQUID GAS Increasing Severity
  • 4.  Through combustible materials: • papers, files, etc. • old or waste materials  Unventilated Areas: • UPS or battery rooms • electrical panels or cabinets  Electrical Faults  Open flames: • smoking • pantry • electric device failures How does FIRE ignite ?
  • 5. Types of FIRE
  • 6. 1. Multi plugging 2. Faulty electrical appliances  UPS  Air conditioner  Stabilizer  Lighting fixtures 3. Overrun of Air-Conditioner  PC rooms 4. Improper distribution of electric loads 5. Improper Earthing 6. Conditions like:  Connected load > Sanctioned load Electrical Faults
  • 7. 1. Electrical Audit 2. AMC of AC and UPS 3. Modular Fire Extinguishers in UPS cabin 4. Air conditioners with timer 5. Proper Earthing 6. Sanction of additional load 7. Single main switch for lighting and power 8. MCB or ELCB installations 9. Installation and maintenance of FIRE Alarm system:  Smoke/ heat detector  Fire Alarm panel  Hooters Electrical Safety
  • 8.  Branch Inspection Check Points: • Scale of Fire Extinguishers • Refilling of Fire Extinguishers • Modular Extinguisher in UPS cabin • Fire alarm system • Electrical audit • General wiring • Ventilation and cooling of UPS room Electrical Safety cont …
  • 9. Essentials of NBC : Construction Architectural Safety Means of Access  Open Space:  Street = 12metres (min.)  Entrance = 4.5/5 meters (min.)  Fire Lift:  Enclosures (2hr ratings)  Doors (1.5 hr rating)  One per 1200sqm floor area  8 persons/545 kg  1.4sqm lift area  Ground to top in 1 minute Means of Escape  Refugee Area:  15 sqm  Exit Sign and Illumination:  10 Lux  Travel Distance:  30mtr/15mtr  Exit Doorway (width):  1mtr (min.)  Staircase Pressurization  Subdividing business building spaces
  • 10. Essentials of NBC : Fire Safety Architectural Safety  Fire Extinguishers  Automated Fire Alarms  Hydrant System or Hose Heel  Hose Box  Fire Pump  PA System  Alternative power source  Lift, stairway, corridors  Compartmentation  Emergency lighting system  Escape Lighting  Automatic Sprinkler System
  • 11. Fire Fighting : New Developments  New Indian Specification for portable Fire Extinguishers – notified by BIS  Present ISI numbers of portable extinguishers:  Water Type – IS 940  DCP Type – IS 2171  CO2 Type – IS 2878  IS 15683 is being notified as single IS Code for all types of portable fire extinguishers.  Recommended brands for Fire Extinguishers:  Minimax  Safex  LifeGuard  Omex  Other certified by BIS Type Capacity Cost Water 9.0 ltrs 1500 - 2000 CO2 4.5 kg 4000-5000 DCP 5.0 kg 1500 - 2000 ABC 5.0 kg 2500 - 3500 Modular 5.0 kg 4000 - 5000
  • 12. Fire Fighting AMC of Fire Fighting Equipment: Type Maintenance hecking Water Half-yearly Annually CO2 Half-yearly Annually DCP Half-yearly Annually ABC Half-yearly Biannually Modular Half-yearly Biannually  Fire Alarm System: Quarterly Checking Modular Type fire Extinguisher (ceiling mounted) DCP (Dry Chemical Powder) Type fire Extinguisher
  • 13. THANK YOU !
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