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  1. 1 Rollno:37 1 2. INTRODUCTION  E-Paper is also called Electronic Paper The first E-Paper was developed in 1974’s by “Nicholas K Sheridon” at…
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  • 1. 1 Rollno:37 1
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  E-Paper is also called Electronic Paper The first E-Paper was developed in 1974’s by “Nicholas K Sheridon” at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Centre. It is a display unit. Can be described as an easily transportable electronic display device that looks like real paper, but can rewritten electronically millions of times 2
  • 3. Its a display technology that will allow readers to read as if it was real paper with ink on it, while being extremely light and flexible Here is a picture that can help anyone visualize what e-paper looks like. 3 Electronic ink is a proprietary material that is processed into a film for integration into electronic displays
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  • 5. Technologies proposed so far: Gyricon Electrophoretic Electrowetting Electrofluidic 5
  • 6. Gyricon First e-paper called GYRICON It based on a thin sheet of flexible plastic containing a layer of tiny plastic beads each encapsulated in oil and it rotate freely. Each hemisphere of a bead has different colour and different electric charge. Electric field is applied the beads are rotate, creat two-coloured pattern. 6
  • 7. This method have some limitations.  Low brightness and resolution.  Lack of color.  Other form of E-ink with improve propertys compared to Gyricon is Electrophoretic 7
  • 8. Electrophoretic Electrophorestic frontplane consist of millions of micro capsules. Each approximately 100 microns in dia. Each micro capsule is filled with a clear fluid containing charged white particle and –ve black particle. 8
  • 9. Composition: •Titania particles inside capsules. •Hydrocarbon oil containing dye •Plates having gap (10-100)μm •Migration of particles: electrophoresis 9
  • 10. A negative electric field is applied the white particles move to the top,causing the area to appear as a white dot. When a positive electric field is applied the black particle migrate to the top and white particle move to bottom. Limitations: • Lack of colour • Low refresh rate • Flicker (Due to slow motion of particles from end to end) 10
  • 11. Charged particle distribution 11
  • 12. Electrowetting Based on the phenomenon of Electrowetting effect based on controlling the shape of a confined water/oil interface by an applied voltage. With no voltage applied, the (coloured) oil forms a flat film between the water and a hydrophobic (water-repellent) insulating coating of an electrode, resulting in a coloured pixel. 12
  • 13. When a voltage is applied between the electrode and the water, the interfacial tension between the water and the coating changes. As a result the stacked state is no longer stable, causing the water to move the oil aside. Electrofluidic Tiny reservoirs employed Electrofluidic displays are a variation of an electro wetting display. 13
  • 14. WORKING It has two different parts.  Front plane. Back plane. The front plane consist of E-ink.  electronics required to generate the pattern of text and images on the e-ink page, the "backplane". 14
  • 15. Front plane E-ink 2-pigment system The front plane consist of E-ink  .E-ink is made up of millions of tiny microcapsules. Each microcapsule contains positively charged white particles and negatively charged black particles suspended in a clear fluid 15
  • 16. When a positive or negative electric field is applied, corresponding particles move to the top of the microcapsule where they become visible to the viewer. This makes the surface appear white or black at that spot When particles are located at the front side of display, it appears white, particles are located at rear side of the display, it appears dark. E-ink 2-pigment system The display forms visible images by rearranging charged particles using an applied electric 16
  • 17. Back plane is made up of organic thin film transistor arrays which provide voltage needed by the E-Paper. To form an E-ink ,electronic display the ink is printed onto a plastic film that is laminated to a layer of circuitry 17
  • 18. Back plane layout 18
  • 19. Rubber Stamped Plastic Circuitry For Electronic Paper 19
  • 20. Thousands of electrodes under the screen emit positive and negative electrical charges. When a negative charge is emitted, the negatively charged black particles are repelled and are pushed to the top of the capsule and white particles move to the bottom generating black text Top layer Capsules Bottom layer Electrodes Top layer Capsules Bottom layer Electrodes 20
  • 21. When positive charge is emitted, the positive charged white particles are pushed to the top of the capsules 21
  • 22. FEATURES Ultra-thin and flexible energy cell. Eliminates the cost of the battery, weight and volume of the battery holder. Can be made into almost any shape. Can be integrated on almost any surface. Environmentally friendly, non-caustic, no possibility of explosion, burns, or overheating. 22
  • 23. Comparison of E-paper & LCD Electronic Ink Display Wide viewing angle Black on paper white Readable in sunlight Holds image without power drain Plastic or glass Light Weight Thin (~1 mm) Liquid Crystal Display Best image only from one position Gray on gray Can be difficult to see Required power to hold images Glass only Power supply and glass make LCDs relatively heavy Thick (~7 mm) 23
  • 24. ADVANTAGE Paper-like Readability. Ultra-Low Power Consumption. Clarity. Reduced Eyestrain. Mobile Display Solution. Hypertext. Multimedia Information. Include Graphics. Inexpensive Highly flexible 24
  • 26. DISADVANTAGES Very low switching speed Electrochemical complexity Electronic paper technologies have a very low refresh rate compared to other low-power display technologies, such as LCD Flickering, No video, Lack of color 26
  • 27. Applications Electronic Book. Electronic Newspaper. Mobile display. Computer monitor. 27
  • 28. Displays embedded in smart cards Flexible display cards enable financial payment cardholders to generate a one-time password to reduce online banking and transaction fraud. Electronic paper could offer a flat and thin alternative to existing key fob tokens for data security Status displays Some devices, likes flash drives, have used electronic paper to display status information, such as available storage space. Mobile phones Motorola's low-cost mobile phone, the Motorola F3,also uses an alphanumeric black/white electrophoretic display 28
  • 29. FUTURE OF E-PAPER An e-devices that will consume little power while also providing high function and color(video playing and web browsing)while also featuring good visibility in sunlight  More advanced wireless capabilities  E-Paper reader may soon replace the present newspaper and books 29
  • 30. Conclusion  Researches found that in just few year this technology can replace paper in many situations, leading us to think of a truly paperless world. 30
  • 31. REFRENCES Comiskey, B.; Albert, J. D.; Yoshizawa, H.; Jacobson, J. "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays" Nature 1998, 394, (6690), 253- 255. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_paper. Blankenbach K, Schmoll A, Bitman A, Bartels F and Jerosch D 2008 Novel highly reflective and bistable electrowetting displays SID J. 16 237- 44  Andersson, P.; Nilsson, D, Svensson, P. O.; Chen, M.; Malmström, A.; Remonen, T.;Kugler, T.; Berggren, M. "Active Matrix Displays Based onAll- Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper" Adv Mater 2002, 14, (20), 1460-1464. Huitema, H. E. A.; Gelinck, G. H.; van der Putten, J. B. P. H.; Kuijk, K. E.; Hart, C. M.;Cantatore, E.; Herwig, P. T.; van Breemen, A. J. J. M.; de Leeuw, D. M. "Plastic transistors inactive-matrix displays" Nature 2001, 414, (6864), 599.  http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definition/e-paper Advertisementindia.com 31
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