Eco lesson 1 and tasks

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  1. CONTENTS ã Introduction (slides 2, 3, 4, 5) ã Presentation (slide 6) ã Air (slides 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16) ã Water (slides 17, 18, 19, 20) ã…
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  • 1. CONTENTS • Introduction (slides 2, 3, 4, 5) • Presentation (slide 6) • Air (slides 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16) • Water (slides 17, 18, 19, 20) • Ecosystems and ground (slides 21, 22, 23, 24, 25) • Energy (slides 26, 27, 28, 29,30,31) • The End (slide 32)
  • 2. Natural Environment • The natural environment consists of all surroundings and conditions in which living things grow and interact on Earth. • These include parts of landscape that function as natural systems without major human intervention, as well as plants, animals, rocks, and natural phenomena. • They also include non-local or universal natural resources such as air, water and climate.
  • 3. • Humanity: the most intelligent species on the planet capable of anything, but it is governed by its aggression and youth. • A species fast in developing but slow in maturing… • A period of ignorance and neglect (trascuratezza) has had profound effects across the world. • Effects that can be reversed, if nature is given the time to repair the damage. • Remember: • David Bayliss
  • 4. HOW MUCH ECO-FRIENDLY ARE YOU? http://ecoguru.panda.org/#/home
  • 5. We only have one home AIR ENERGY WATER GROUND
  • 6. THE AIR WHAT IS IT? Air is the name given to atmosphere used in breathing and photosynthesis WHAT IS THE ATMOSPHERE? The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by: -absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, - warming the surface through heat retention ( greenhouse effect), - reducing temperature extremes between day and night
  • 7. ATMOSPHERE STRATIFICATIONS OR LAYERS The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth. The ozone layer absorbs 97–99% of the Sun's medium-frequency ultraviolet light, which potentially damages exposed life forms on Earth
  • 8. AIR POLLUTION • Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause damages, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment. • Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories, they are: - human activities - natural events (mainly volcanoes dust)
  • 9. HUMAN ACTIVITIES • "Stationary Sources" include smoke from power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices. • "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, planes. • Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management. • Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents. • Waste deposition in landfills, which generates methane. • Military, such as nuclear weapons and toxic gases. • Deforestation
  • 10. EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH • Air pollution is a significant risk factor for multiple health conditions including respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer.
  • 11. The health effects caused by air pollution may include: - difficulty in breathing, - coughing and - aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions
  • 12. EFFECTS ON EARTH: Global warming Global warming is a process where the average global temperature increases due to the greenhouse effect drought and desertification climate change ice melting
  • 13. EFFECTS ON EARTH: GREENHOUSE EFFECT The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon whereby greenhouse gasses create a condition in the upper atmosphere causing a trapping of heat and leading to increased surface and lower tropospheric temperatures. Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels are a source of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • 14. EFFECTS ON EARTH: ACID RAIN • Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions . • Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide (biossido di zolfo) and nitrogen oxides (ossido di azoto), which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. • Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning strikes and sulphur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions.
  • 15. •Acid rains can have harmful effects on plants, animals and ground. The chemicals in acid rain can cause paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such as bridges and erosion of stone statues.
  • 16. Air can be cleaner if… • you do not use cars too often: walk or cycle; • you use more public transports; • you do not use gases or sprays; • you plant more trees to get more oxygen; • you reduce waste and recycle materials; • you support eco-friendly companies or organisations; • plants and factories use filters to reduce harmful gas or particulate emissions.
  • 17. Water on Earth • Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. • Water is a liquid at temperatures above 0 °C at sea level, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state water vapour or steam (vapore). It also exists as groundwater. • Liquid water is found in oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, canals, ponds. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. • Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. • Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other life forms. And we need water to produce…
  • 18. Water needed to produce… 100 g 1,700 l Cocoa seeds 1k/l = 20,000 l Sugar 1kg/l= 1,800 l 1 kg 2,497 l Plants grow in at least 10 cm of water 1 Kg 214 l A plant drinks from 0,1 to 2 l per day 1 l 255 l 1 g of milk protein needs 33 l of water 1 cup of 132 l It includes water for its growing, harvesting, transport and packaging. 1 kg 4,325 l It depends on the food. 1 kg of pork needs 5,988 l. 1 kg of veal = 15,400 l 100 g 550 l Water contained in milk is wasted during its working. 1 1,256 l 50% of water is used for mozzarella; 44% for the dough and 6 % x tomatoes 1 200 l Hens feeding and cages cleaning 1 small glass of 74 l To grow the plants used to produce it A loaf of 155 l 80% is water used to water wheat crops (1kg/l = 1,222 l)
  • 19. The Water Cycle •Water on Earth moves continually through the hydrological cycle of evaporation and transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and run off (scorrere via), usually reaching the sea.
  • 20. Water Pollution from… Marine dumping: throwing litter in the sea Industrial water Oil from oil spills, routine shipping Atmosphere Global warming Eutrophication environment becomes enriched with nutrients. it can cause algal blooms.
  • 21. What Can You Do? • Save water by turning off the tap when running water is not necessary. • Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet. • Don’t throw paints, oils or other forms of litter down the drain. • Use environmentally household products, such as washing powder, household cleaning agents and toiletries. • Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilisers. This will prevent runoffs of the material into nearby water sources. • By having more plants in your garden you are preventing fertiliser, pesticides and contaminated water from running off into nearby water sources. • Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help clean up any litter you see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, and put it in a nearby dustbin.
  • 22. Mother Earth Ecosystems • An ecosystem is a self-contained, dynamic system made of a population of species in its physical environment. • There are many different ways in which the community of organisms interacts.
  • 23. • It is important to know how a simple act like introducing sewage water or toxic waste into a lake can threaten several life species and plants in all the other parts of that area. • Ecosystems are several habitats intersected. • The Earth itself is one large ecosystem. • Smaller ecosystems include: desert tundra grasslands rainforest marine • SSooiill qquuaalliittyy is "the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function“. • Its most important functions are to provide nutrition to plants, absorb and drain water.
  • 24. Dangers include: • Deforestation: from temperate forests to tropical rainforests, deforestation continues to be an urgent environmental issue that jeopardizes people’s livelihoods, threatens species, and intensifies global warming. Why? Use of lands for agriculture (ex habitat loss, thirsty crops , forest conversion, illegal logging) and building of roads and houses (habitat loss, dams etc) • Introduction of invasive species • Mass tourism (ex costal development) • Wildlife trade • Pollution and contamination by oil, fertilizers, garbage, toxic chemicals (in environment, impacting species) • Climate changes (on species, forests, marine environments)
  • 25. How can you help? Think! The food we eat, the clothes we buy, the way we travel, how we live… everything has an impact on Nature. • Eat seasonal local products! • Control your soaps and cosmetics! • Choose energy efficient appliances! • Don’t abandon waste, use litters! • Don’t ask for exotic animals! • Reduce waste! • Reuse things! • Recycle materials: batteries, plastic, tyres, fridge and freezers, mobile phones, glass, paper, waste oil, TV and Monitors, cardboard, green waste, tins and metals! • Take action simply telling a friend to do what you are doing! • Play these games: http://wwf.panda.org/how_you_can_help/games/
  • 26. Energy • We all use energy every day of our lives. • Energy is all around us. We see it as movement, heat, light, sound, and more. • Energy makes electricity so that we can turn on lights, watch TV, listen to the radio and run fridges, stoves, other appliances and electrical gadgets. • Energy can heat or cool our homes and schools. • Energy moves our cars, buses, motorcycles, trucks, planes and trains. • Energy lets us make all kinds of things like shoes, CD's, books, computers and scooters. • Over time we have learned to get energy from a number of different sources and use it in new and different ways. • Energy has been used for heat and to cook food for thousands of years. Since the Stone Age, fire has been used to provide heat and light. • In ancient times people used wind to sail their ships and grind grain. A hundred year's ago falling water was used to make electricity. Today, fossil fuels supply more than 90% of the world's energy.
  • 27. Fossil fuels • Fossil fuels are natural substances deep within the Earth from the remains of ancient plants and animals. Over time heat and pressure turned different decomposing remains into fuels that, burnt, produce energy. • FOSSIL FUELS are: • COAL comes from ancient plants • OIL comes from plancton (little animals and plants) at the bottom of lakes and seas and after a very long natural process it turned into the “crude oil” that is extracted today from different layers of rocks at different levels. - Crude oil needs to be cleaned and separated at an oil refinery, giving different products such as: gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, tar for roads and chemicals to make plastic. - 40% of all world’s energy comes from oil, but at the rate we are using it there will be none left by 2100. Most greenhouse gases and pollution are from oil burning. • NATURAL GAS has the same origins as oil (plancton remains) but it is a gas and not a liquid. Natural gas is a mixture of methane, butane, propane and ethane. - 23% of the world’s energy comes from natural gas which is less dangerous than oil burning with fewer greenhouse gases.
  • 28. COAL NATURAL GAS
  • 29. Renewable Energy Solar Energy • Solar energy is energy collected from the sun. Solar collectors and modules are designed to capture some of the sun’s energy and change into more usable forms such as heat or electricity. • The main problems with solar energy include land disturbance/land use, visual changes to the landscape, impacts associated with hazardous materials and potential impacts on water and other resources. Wind Energy The wind has been used by humans for hundreds of years, first to carry ships across oceans and later to pump water and grind grain. Today, airflows can be used to run turbines that generate electricity. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind turbines. • The environmental impact of wind energy is negligible but concerns have been raised over the noise produced by the rotor blades, visual impacts, and deaths of birds and bats that fly into the rotors.
  • 30. Water Energy • The energy associated with water has been used around the world for hundreds of years. Today the energy in the water is mainly used to produce electricity via hydroelectricity—using the energy generated by falling water. • Hydroelectricity does not produce significant greenhouse gas emissions but it has other major environmental impacts. The reservoirs often destroy vast areas of highly productive forest and wildlife habitat. The dams also damage freshwater ecosystems by blocking the movement of fish and other organisms. Biomass Energy • Biomass energy is produced from energy crops or from waste materials. Heat, electricity, and transportation fuels can be made from plant materials and wastes such as agricultural residues, forest underbrush and organic human wastes. The food you eat, plants that die, woodchips and seaweed are all sources of biomass energy. Most rubbish we throw out is buried in the ground in a landfill. The gas generated by a landfill as it rots (biomass) is another form of renewable or "green" energy. • Landfill gas is created when the waste you throw away starts decomposing in the ground. This gas can be captured and processed to create electricity. Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burn as fuel. • Biomass energy can have a negative environmental impact if there is too much CO2 produced. The CO2 contributes to global warming. Geothermal Energy • Geothermal energy is formed from the heat inside the Earth that causes hot springs, geysers and volcanoes. Some countries have used it for thousands of years in some as a source of hot water, cooking and heating. Steam produced from heat found beneath the surface of the earth can also produce electricity.
  • 31. How We Can Save Energy • Turn the lights off as you leave a room. • Switch off your Pc, TV, stereo, DVD/CD players if you do not use it. • Insulate your house (roof, doors, windows) • Turn the heating down. • Recycle materials. • Use low energy light bulbs. • Replace old electrical appliances with more efficient ones (class A) • You can learn more from this site: http://ecokids.ca/pub/index.cfm
  • 32. YOU CAN CHOOSE TO BE WHATEVER YOU WANT, BUT…
  • 33. Task 1 (slide 2) What is Humanity? …………………………………... Its characteristics: 1) …..…………………………. 2) ……………………………… Humanity’s dangers: 1) …………………………….. 2) ……………………………. Effects on Nature: ……………………………………. How is it possible to save Nature? …………………. What… to remember? ………………………………..
  • 34. Task 2: slide 3 Natural Environment: • Definition: ……………………………………………… …………………………………….. • Elements that are part of Environment: 1)………… 2) …………. 3)…………… 4) ……….. 5) …………. 6) …………… 7) ………..
  • 35. Task 3 (slide 4 video) Watch this video and complete these exercises  The journey starts from: the Earth, the Universe, the Solar System  Put in sequence the planets we see: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, 1)………………….. 2) ……………….. 3) ………………. 4) ……………….  What natural environments can you see? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………….  What animals do you recognise? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………….  What animal can’t you see in the video? ……………………………………….
  • 36. Task 4 Use the link below to calculate your footprint on Earth • http://ecoguru.panda.org/#/home • My footprint on Earth is ………………….., with reference to Italy………………….. and to the World …………………………
  • 37. We only have one home ……………….. …………….. ......................... …………….. …………………… …………………. Task 1 (slide 5) Our home is made of…
  • 38. Task 2 (slide 6/7 AIR) Air is important for: 1) ……………………….. 2) ………………………… Atmosphere is ………………………………… Atmosphere is important to: 1) …………………………………… 2) …………………………………… 3) …………………………………… There are …….. atmosphere layers. The ozone layer has a high concentration of …………….; it is in the ……………… and it is useful to ……………….. …………………………………………..
  • 39. Task 3 (slide 8/9/10, 11: AIR POLLUTION) Air pollution is given by the concentration of: 1) ……………... 2)………………. 3)……….…….. Causes of air pollution are: 1) ……………... 2)………………. Effects of air pollution on population: 1) ……………... 2)………………. 3)……….…….. HHuummaann aaccttiivviittiieess that are dangerous for the air: 1) ……………... 2)………………. 3)……….……. 4) ……………... 5)………………. 6)……….……...
  • 40. Task 4 (slides 12, 13, 14, 16 EFFECTS ON THE EARTH) • What are some of the effects on Earth? 1) …………………. 2)……………………3)………………… 4) ……………….. 5) …………………. • We have the greenhouse effect when the atmosphere traps/does not trap the Sun’s radiations. • This increases / reduces the temperatures on the Earth’s surface. • …………………………… is mainly liable (responsabile) for the greenhouse effect. • What is an acid rain? …………………………………………………. • What does acid rain contain? 1) …………………… 2) ……………. • Acid rains are dangerous for ………………………………………….
  • 41. I CAN…….. Make a list of the everyday choices you are going to do in the next 3 months to help the Earth to breath better: (Start from today! It is (date)…………………………..) 1) I can ……………………… 2) I can ………………………. 3) I can ………………………. At the end of these 3 months: (date…………………) 1) I have……(never, sometimes, often, always) ……………. 2) I have……(never, sometimes, often, always) ……………. 3) I have……(never, sometimes, often, always) ……………. The Air thanks you!
  • 42. Task 1 (slides 17/18 WATER ON THE EARTH) What is water? ………………………………………………. What is its formula? ………………………………………….. What are the water states on Earth? 1) ……………..2) ……………3)…………... Where is water? 1) ……………..2) ……………3)…………...4) …………… 5) ……………. What are the percentages of water and land? …………………………………. Whose life depends on water? …………………………………………………. What are the phases of the water cycle? 1) ……………..2) ……………3)…………... 4) …………….. What kinds of precipitations can we have? 1) ……………..2) ……………3)…………...
  • 43. Task 2 (slide 19 WATER POLLUTION) What are the most serious forms of water pollution can we list? 1)………………………………… 2)………………………………… 3) ……………………………….. 4) ……………………………….. 5) ……………………………….. 6) ………………………………. Dangers come from: 1) …………… 2) ......................3)…………….…….. 4) ……………….5)………………..6) …………………..
  • 44. I CAN…….. Make a list of the everyday choices you are going to do in the next 3 months to help the Earth waters to feel better: (Start from today! It is (date)…………………………..) 1) I can ……………………… 2) I can ………………………. 3) I can ………………………. At the end of these 3 months: (date…………………) 1) I have……(never, sometimes, often, always) ……………. 2) I have……(never, sometimes, often, always) ……………. 3) I have……(never, sometimes, often, always) ……………. The Water thanks you!
  • 45. Task 1 slides 21 22 MOTHER EARTH An Ecosystem is made of ………………………………………………………… What does interaction mean? …………………………………………………………
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