colonial rule and pastoriallife

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  1. Colonial rule and pastorial life A presentation by group 2 2. Life of pastoralists ã Nomadic pastoralists are people who do not live in one place . ã they move…
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  • 1. Colonial rule and pastorial life A presentation by group 2
  • 2. Life of pastoralists • Nomadic pastoralists are people who do not live in one place . • they move from place to place in search of fresh pastures since cattle rearing is there main occupation • These pastoralists did not own a fixed land or any property worth revenue . • The aim of the british was to collect tax for their benefit . • Nomads who moved continuously and who didn't not own any land made it difficult for the british to collect tax .
  • 3. Introduction • Under colonial rule the life of pastoralists changed dramatically . • Their grazing grounds shrank • Their movements were controlled • They had to pay more revenue • This affected their trades adversly • These acts brought misery into the life of pastoralists
  • 4. Forest Acts By The British On Pastoralists In India
  • 5. Forest Acts • Forest acts were being enacted in various provinces by the mid-ninteenth century. • Forests which had valuable timber were considered as ‘Reserved’ • They were against the movement of pastorals. They believed the herds would destroy the salpings and munch on the roots .Thus, preventing tree from growing.
  • 6. How did they affect the pastoralists? • They were prevented from entering many forests. Their movements were regulated everywhere . • Number of days they could spend in the forest was limit. • Forest Department permits now ruled their lives, they had to move from areas with forage. • If they overstayed they would be fined.
  • 7. SUSPENSION OF NOMADS BY: Eisha Hassan IX-B
  • 8. General Information About Nomads • Anthropologists have identified about 500 nomadic groups in India, numbering perhaps 80 million people— around 7 percent of the country's billion-plus population. • The nomadic communities in India can be broadly divided into three groups hunter gatherers, pastoralists and the peripatetic or non-food producing groups. • They have lost their livelihood niche because of drastic changes in transport, industries, production, entertainment and distribution systems . And one of the most important is the colonial rule in India. • The government of India in early 2006 has set up a commission for the development of these communities.
  • 9. Nomads Under British Rule • The British people were suspicious of nomadic people. • Earlier the nomads the were traveling from one place to another in search of good climatic condition, pastures for their herds and had no fixed place. • After the British rule, they weren’t allowed to move from one place to another. And wanted them to settle in villages with particular fields . • The people who agreed with the government and followed the instructions were seen as peaceful and law abiding…!! Whereas other like nomadic were considered as criminals.
  • 10. • In year 1871, the colonial government passed a Criminal Tribes Act, in this act many communities were classified e.g traders, pastoralists etc. • In this act , these communities were not allowed to go cities or any other place without a permit.
  • 11. Expanding Revenue Income…… Successfully expanding your revenue flow may have less to do with sales tactics than with servicing your customer's needs. In "Trust Based Selling," sales guru Charles Green states that when people buy things, they would rather buy them from trustworthy sources. Instead of devising new sales pitches to lure customers, making your relationships with them more transparent, helpful and responsive might improve revenues and boost customer satisfaction.
  • 12. • Tax was imposed on canal water , salt , trade goodsand even on animals . • Thus the pastoralists found it difficult to pay the taxes for animals as their main occupation was rearing animals . • grazing tax was introduced
  • 13. HOW DID THESE CHANGES AFFECT THE LIVES OF PASTORALISTS?
  • 14. 1.These measures led to a serious shortage of pastures. 2.GRAZING 3.RESERVATION OF FOREST
  • 15. 4.INTENSIVE GRAZING 5.SHORTAGE OF FORAGE 6.DEATH OF CATTLE
  • 16. HOW DID THE PASTORALISTS COPE WITH THESE CHANGES? 1.WHEN THE PASTORALISTS IN ONE PLACE IS CLOSED TO THEM THEY MOVE TO ANOTHER DIRECTION. 2.REDUCE THE SIZE OF THEIR HERD. 3.COMBINE PASTROL ACTIVITY WITH OTHER FORMS OF INCOME AND ADAPTED TO THE CHANGE IN THE MODERN WORLD.........
  • 17. 1.These measures led to a serious shortage of pastures. 2.GRAZING 3.RESERVATION OF FOREST
  • 18. 4.INTENSIVE GRAZING 5.SHORTAGE OF FORAGE 6.DEATH OF CATTLE
  • 19. HOW DID THE PASTORALISTS COPE WITH THESE CHANGES? 1.WHEN THE PASTORALISTS IN ONE PLACE IS CLOSED TO THEM THEY MOVE TO ANOTHER DIRECTION. 2.REDUCE THE SIZE OF THEIR HERD. 3.COMBINE PASTROL ACTIVITY WITH OTHER FORMS OF INCOME AND ADAPTED TO THE CHANGE IN THE MODERN WORLD.........
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