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  1. 1 “The Impact of Supportive Leadership and Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction of Private School Teachers in Islamabad” A STUDY ON THE…
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  • 1. 1 “The Impact of Supportive Leadership and Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction of Private School Teachers in Islamabad” A STUDY ON THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF ISLAMABAD SUBMITTED BY AQSA KHALID (080602) SUPERVISOR IMRAN HAMEED A Research Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of BBA Department of Business Administration Air University 2013
  • 2. 2 FINAL PROJECT APPROVAL SHEET Topic of Research: “The Impact of Supportive Leadership and Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction of Private School Teachers in Islamabad” Name of students: AQSA KHALID (080602) Program: BBA-F-08 Approved by: _____________________ Imran Hameed (Project Supervisor) _____________________ Internal Examiner (Umar Ghauri) _____________________ Internal Examiner (Farooq Rashid) _____________________ Dr. Mueen Zafar Aziz (Dean, Faculty of Administrative Sciences)
  • 3. 3 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION OF RESEARCH Miss Aqsa Khalid, Roll no. / Reg. No. 080602. SemesterBBA-08 has completed their research on under my supervision. Their topic is “The Impact of Supportive Leadership and Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction of Private School Teachers in Islamabad” This thesis has been examined by me. It has been found complete in all aspects and now fit for presentation. The student is therefore allowed in the presentation / viva voce for defending it before the panel of examiners. Imran Hameed (Supervisor)
  • 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I am grateful to Almighty Allah for awarding me the courage to confront every challenge in life with greater success and complete the whole thesis. I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Mr. Imran Hameed, Assistant Professor of Administrative Sciences whose guidance provided strong foundation for this research and supported me throughout the project. His understanding, untiring advice, and encouragement have enabled to me to complete our thesis. I would also like to thank the all the teachers from various institutions who co-operated with me in getting the survey done. In the end, I am grateful to my Parents who always encouraged me in my every field and walk of life and made this project possible.
  • 5. 5 ABSTRACT This research project was to find the impact of Organizational Commitment and Supportive Leadership on Job satisfaction of private school teachers in Islamabad. This research was carried with a non-probability, convenient sampling. A questionnaire was devised as a survey tool to collect the primary data. A sample size of 90 respondents was chosen out of total 120 questionnaires, and statistical tests were applied for inference-building. Three hypotheses were developed out of which two hypotheses were accepted. According to the results, Supportive Leadership and Organizational Commitment had an independent and positive impact on Job Satisfaction. Interestingly, the research confirmed a partial-moderating impact of Supportive Leadership in the link between Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction. This research bears managerial implication that both Supportive Leadership and Organizational Commitment need to be taken up as independent, distinct factors as well as interacted together by management to boost the overall Job Satisfaction.
  • 6. 6 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................... 8 INTRODUCION......................................................................................................................... 8 1.1: Background of the study................................................................................................. 11 1.2: Purpose of the Research ................................................................................................. 12 1.3: Beneficiaries................................................................................................................... 12 1:4 Literature Gap.................................................................................................................. 12 1.5: Research Objective......................................................................................................... 13 1.6: Problem Statement.......................................................................................................... 14 1.7: Research Questions ........................................................................................................ 14 CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................................. 15 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................... 15 2.1: Organizational Commitment .......................................................................................... 15 2.2: Job Satisfaction............................................................................................................... 18 2.3: The impact of Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction ................................... 21 2.4: Supportive Leadership.................................................................................................... 22 2.5: Relationship between Supportive Leadership and Job Satisfaction............................... 23 2.6: The relationship between Supportive Leadership and Organizational Commitment..... 25 CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................. 27 THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK............................................................................................ 27 3.1: Model.............................................................................................................................. 27 3.2: Variables......................................................................................................................... 28 3.3: Hypothesis Development................................................................................................ 27 3.4: Variable definition.......................................................................................................... 28 CHAPTER 4 ................................................................................................................................. 30 RESEARCH METHOD............................................................................................................ 30 4.1: Acquisition of data ......................................................................................................... 30 4.2: Population and Sampling................................................................................................ 30 4.3: Sample size..................................................................................................................... 30 4.4: Measures......................................................................................................................... 31 4.5: Data Analysis................................................................................................................. 31
  • 7. 7 4.6: Correlation...................................................................................................................... 32 4.7: Regression ...................................................................................................................... 32 CHAPTER 5.............................................................................................................................. 33 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS.................................................................................................. 33 5.1: Normality check ............................................................................................................. 33 5.2: Reliability – Internal Consistency .................................................................................. 33 5.3: Factor Analysis............................................................................................................... 35 5.4: Multicollinearity Check.................................................................................................. 36 5.5: Partial Correlation .......................................................................................................... 37 5.6: Regression Results.......................................................................................................... 38 5.7: Analysis and Findings .................................................................................................... 39 CHAPTER 6.............................................................................................................................. 42 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................... 42 6.1: Discussion....................................................................................................................... 42 6.2: Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 42 6.3: Management Implication and Recommendation............................................................ 43 6.4: Limitation ....................................................................................................................... 43 APPENDIX (Questionairre ) ........................................................................................................ 44 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 48
  • 8. 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCION This chapter discusses an outline of the study background and organizational environment of companies that are working in Pakistan. The problem statement concentrates on the critical elements that are allied with job satisfaction and the issues that have a strong impact on this. Furthermore, this chapter highlights literature gap, research objectives, research questions, problem statement and significance of this research. Pakistan’s economy is known as one of the developing economies of the world. The working atmosphere has become competitive with the increasing levels of development. Currall et al. 2005) stated in a general context, that skilled, proficient and competent employees are required by organizations because the productivity and organizational production is highly reliant on employee’s performance. Numerous difficulties faced by private, multinational and local firms while operating in such formless market setup in Pakistan that leads employees to dissatisfaction and raises frustration among the employees. Therefore my effort is towards maintaining overall job satisfaction among the employees to accomplish the higher levels of organizational commitment through my research so that employees’ efficiency is enlarged. Rad and Yaramohammadian in 2006 demonstrated that firms cannot succeed without appropriate commitment and hence job satisfaction is the most serious elements for the
  • 9. 9 maintenance of employee’s commitment. Lot of consideration has been given to organizational commitment in preceding researches due to its imperative impact on work attitudes like effective performances and job satisfaction of the workers. In Pakistan, many writers have discussed the concept of different job related factors, one of them is Job Satisfaction and it has been always very broadly researched area all over the globe. Multiple factors have been recognized by various researchers, affecting Job Satisfaction; however, my study emphases its link with organizational commitment and Supportive Leadership. Organizational commitment has been widely researched and different researchers have identified its backgrounds and consequences. Allen & Meyer (1990) defined organizational commitment as “psychological state that binds the individual to the organization”. Cohen (1991) mentioned that outcomes affected by organizational commitment fluctuate across career stages and this particularly defines the relationship between organizational commitment and income. Similarly, employees will always be committed towards their organization if they are satisfied with their job, leaders, pay etc. than those who are not satisfied with their job. Opkara (in 2004) illustrated that the emphasis on Job Satisfaction and Commitment cannot be ignored because they are the main factors of employee performance, productivity and turnover. Samad (in 2007) stated Organizational efficiency rises when the employees are commitment and satisfied with their organization because commitment and satisfaction leads to the higher performance.
  • 10. 10 Graen & Cashmen (1975) found that employee’s commitment towards firm can be strengthen and link between supervisors and employees can be enriched by the Supportive Leadership. In this aspect, in order to inspire employees by giving them a responsive and pleasant environment, supportive leader plays a vital role which leads to decrease their job stress and other job related problems and helps them to work in an improved way. Organizations in Pakistan have improved immensely during the past few years, thereby intensive competition amongst organizations lead employees to put their best determination to achieve a position over their competitors. Geijsel et al., (2003) inferred that teacher’s sense of aptitude, enthusiasm and self- efficacy is developed by the help of Supportive Leadership Behavior which comprises the leader’s support of subordinates’ professional and personal development. House and Mitchell (in 1974) said that Supportive Leadership displays the concern for employees’ comfort and raises a pleasant and responsive setting as it’s a behavior that reports the requirements and favorites of the employees. Wallace et al. (2009) suggested that study should be done on the influence and impact of the Leadership style on important work elements. Hence, this study and research is considered to inspect the impact of supportive leadership on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can merely be defined as the feelings people have about their professions. It has been specially defined as a pleasurable emotional state ensuing from the appraisal, an affective reaction, and an attitude towards one’s job. These descriptions clearly show that job satisfaction takes into account feelings, beliefs and behaviors. There are varying definitions of job satisfaction. Alongside, they have been describing with many measurements which are equally diverse. Job satisfaction can be defined in terms of
  • 11. 11 external working conditions, supervisors support, pay etc. and internal individual motivation, life satisfaction etc. where the external factors are relatively easy to recognize and gauge the aspect of the internal factors are more problematic. In regions where emotional intelligence is not stressed upon nor is goal setting, the internal factors are not deliberately focused. In Pakistan, the attention towards job satisfaction is only beginning to develop. Obviously, the first instinctive step is to focus on the environmental or external, more controllable factors of job satisfaction. As such the focus of this research will be to measure the job satisfaction level on the bases of environmental factors. 1.1: Background of the study Nanda and Brown (1977) have tried to classify the important factors of the performance of the employee at the time of hiring and the productivity depends on number of factors like motivation and job satisfaction . Balfour and Wechsler (1996) describe that the organizational commitment is a good aspect of organizational productivity and performance. Employees’ performances can be managed by another technique which is to plan inducement programs more strategically in a way where organizational commitment is also addressed. Hackman & Oldham, (1980); Herzberg, (1966) defined that Job satisfaction is the satisfaction a worker gets from responsibilities and characteristics allied with the job and Taormina (1999) organizational commitment. Glisson and Durick (1988); Hackman & Oldham (1980) recognized that Satisfaction with supervision is an imperative part of job satisfaction and
  • 12. 12 is linked to turnover and organizational commitment. Locke (1976) contended that employee’s job practice assists the job satisfaction to mark it in a positive mental state. Glisson and Durick (1988) agreed with Locke (1976) that organizational commitment and job satisfaction are linked; however, they remain separate thoughts. Glisson & Durick (1988) recommend that as possible sponsors to job satisfaction, including personal, organizational and job features, many basics have been studied. They also said that Herzberg (1966) did early work on link between job characteristics and worker attitudes based on meeting the worker‘s needs with the implication being that a positive attitude from meeting needs via job characteristics produces job satisfaction which is known as needs- satisfaction models. In addition, both job satisfaction and organizational commitment is linked with the satisfaction along with the supervision (Brass, 1981; Fernandez, 2008; Hackman & Oldham, 1976; Wu, 2009). 1.2: Purpose of the Research The moderating impact of Supportive Leadership has been studied in past researches. The present study aims to investigate the moderating impact of Supportive Leadership between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in developing countries like Pakistan. 1:3 Literature Gap Most of the modern studies were determining the mutual impact of Organizational Commitment and leadership on employee’s turnover ratios and were measuring the impact of leadership as a moderator. According to current literature the impact of Supportive Leadership as
  • 13. 13 an independent variable and its relation to Job Satisfaction was not clear. After going all previous studies its seems interesting to determine the impact of Supportive Leadership as a moderating variable on the relationship between the Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction. 1.4: Beneficiaries Academic institutions play a vital role in a nation’s success. If the employees or the professors working at different educational institutions are facing supportive leader conflicts they can never teach well to the pupils. Obviously because if they are not getting appropriate training or guidance from their deans or leaders, how can they be good teachers? However, an institute’s presentation raises its status. According to this survey, if institutes in Pakistan want to compete with institutes at international ranks they should emphasis on increasing their leadership and mentoring as well as organizational commitment which ultimately leads towards job satisfaction and better performance. By providing the leadership support, the teachers can perform effectively and efficiently at the institution and will show commitment towards their organization. 1.5: Research Objective 1. The purpose of this research is to gauge the impact of Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction. 2. To identify the impact of Supportive Leadership on Job Satisfaction.
  • 14. 14 3. The research will inspect the impact on strength and direction of relationship that exists between Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction through the interaction effect of Supportive Leadership. 1.6: Problem Statement To determine the nature and intensity of relationship between Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction with Supportive Leadership playing as moderating role. 1.7: Research Questions The research questions for this study are: 1. Does Supportive Leadership have a direct association with Job Sa
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