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  • 1. 1 RAMAVILASOM TRAINING COLLEGE (Affiliated to the University of Kerala) VALAKOM P.O., KOLLAM- 691532 ONLINE ASSIGNMENT Semester- II Topic: The Linear Programming Ajayan J Optional: English Reg. No: 165 14 341 001
  • 2. 2 CONTENTS Introduction..............................................................................................................2 The Linear Programming .......................................................................................4 Characteristics of Linear Programming................................................................4 Limitations of Linear Programming......................................................................5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................6 Reference ..................................................................................................................6
  • 3. 3 Introduction Programmed Learning is educational technique which is characterized by self-paced, self- administered instruction presented in logical sequence and with much repetition of concepts. This involves controlled carefully specified and skilfully arranged learning experiences. Programmed Learning applies the principles of Psychology and technology in the learning process. The primary objective of programmed learning is to provide individualized instruction. The learning material is presented to the learner stage by stage through sequent arranged smaller units called “frames”. The frames are graded according to the level of difficulty as well as logical sequence. Programmed Learning is based on the theory that the learning in many areas is best accomplished by small, incremental steps with immediate reinforcement or reward for the learner. This technique can be applied through texts, teaching machines and computer-assisted instruction. In Programmed Learning, a complete system was proposed which included the following stages and things 1. The aims of the course are started in terms which are objective and can be measured. 2. A pre-test is given or the initial behaviour is started. 3. A post-test is provided. 4. The materials have been tried out and revised according to results 5. The materials are constructed according to pre-determined scheme 6. The material is arranged in appropriate steps. 7. The learner has to respond actively. 8. Arrangements are made for responses to be confirmed. 9. The teaching medium is appropriate for the subject matter and the students. 10. The materials are self-paced or presented in a manner which suits the learner. There are two common varieties or two basic types of programming .They are Linear or Straight-line Programming or Branching.
  • 4. 4 The Linear Programming The linear Programming was developed by B.F.Skinner.Hence it is called Skinnerian style of programming. According to him, the best way to teach student is to break the subject matter into meaningful segments of information and write small steps in such a way that only the correct responses are likely to occur. This would lead to success. Students learn better when they are successful. This would lead to success. Students learn better when they are successful. The student should actively participate in the process by constructing responses. Skinner is of opinion that recall responses or constructed responses are more efficient in the learning process than recognition type responses .He believes that the act of responding on the part of the student causes learning to occur. Linear Programmed material consists of carefully thought out questions and answers associated to each sample item. Questions are asked directly and the student is required to think and note down the answer. The linear program is called a straight line programme as the learner starts from his initial behaviour to the terminal behaviour following a straight direction. As indicated earlier, subject matter broken into very small steps is presented step by step in a proper sequence. A student has to master one step before proceeding to another and so on. These steps are carefully decided by the teacher beforehand and the students find it easier to learn. This is also called extrusive programming because a learner had no choice of his own in following the path or sequence. It is decided by the programmer. Characters of Linear Programming 1. Linear Arrangement The learner starts from his initial behaviour to the terminal behaviour following the straight line sequence. 2. Responses are controlled The learner must respond to each and every frame for learning to occur. 3. Responses is emphasized The learner must respond to each and every frame for learning to occur.
  • 5. 5 4. Immediate Feedback As soon as the learner responds to the frame, he immediately compare his response of the programmer and gain knowledge of result. 5. Prompting A prompt given in the beginning in the form of clarification regarding the frame helps the learner to respond correctly. This will not only promote learning but also avoid unnecessary wastage of time to be spent for finding out the correct answer. 6. Active participation It ensures active participation of the learner He has to construct for every frame. 7. Simplicity Mechanism to work on linear programme is simple 8. Suitability It is best suited f in the subject areas where facts and information can be properly sequenced Limitations of Linear Programming 1. Lack of motivation Learning becomes dull and monotonous because it takes too much time to teach a few simple points. 2. Limitation of serial order learning Frames are presented in a serial order but learning in actual situation is not always serial. 3. No freedom choice Leaner has no choice of his/her own to respond. His/her creative imagination and judgement ability are inhibited. Instead of discovering answers, students are forced to follow a rigid line prescribed by the writer.
  • 6. 6 4. Limited scope of Subject matter It can be used only in limited areas where subject matter can be properly sequenced. 5. Absence of Differentiation It does not permit differentiation among responses. Conclusion Programmed learning is a newer form of reading and writing. The linear programming analyses a subject in to its component parts and arranges the parts into sequential learning order. Students can be led to the desired goal by presenting carefully structured material in small steps provided that each step is reinforced by favourable experience. Through these we can lead him/her to the desired goal. References 1. Lumsdance A.A, instruments and Media of Instructions, Chicago: AERA and Rand, 1963. 2. Skinner B.F, the Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching, Howard Educational Review, 24. 86. 1954. 3. www.britanica.com/topics/programmed learning.
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