Airline traffic control (atc)..

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  • 1. Concept of Air Traffic Control System Created by :-Vinay dwivedi B tech final year Rama university(RU)
  • 2. Theory and Fundamentals of Radar Operation • Radar (radio detection and ranging) • In 1888, Heinrich hertz demonstrated that radio waves were reflected by objects in the same manners light waves
  • 3. Fundamentals of Radar
  • 4. Components of Radar Systems • Transmitter • Antenna • Receiver • Indicator
  • 5. Components of Radar Systems • Transmitter – Creates high-powered radio pulses – Operates in UHF band or higher – Radar pulse last about one microsecond
  • 6. Components of Radar Systems • Antenna – Antenna functions as both a transmitting and receiving device – Pulses emitted by the transmitter are routed to the antenna using a waveguide--a hollow metal channel that conducts the microwave energy to the antenna
  • 7. Components of Radar Systems • Receiver – Switched on as transmitter switches off – Upon receiving a reflection, the radar system measures the time difference between the transmission and reception and uses this calculation to determine the objects distance from the antenna – 12.36 microseconds is known as a radar-mile
  • 8. Components of Radar Systems • Indicator – Air traffic control uses a cathode ray tube known as a plan position indicator (PPI) radar scope
  • 9. Components of Radar Systems • Indicator – Center of PPI known as the MAIN BANG
  • 10. Components of Radar System • Moving target indicator (MTI) – One way of eliminates ground clutter – Other way is to raise antenna a few degrees – Check pages 309 - 314 of textbook
  • 11. Types of ATC Radar • Precision Approach Radar (PAR) • Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) • Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) • Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE)
  • 12. Precision Approach Radar (PAR) • Used primarily by the Department of Defense as a precision landing aid.
  • 13. • Developed in the 1940’s • Before ILS Precision Approach Radar (PAR)
  • 14. • PAR consisted of a mobile facility thus making it most effective for the military • Many PAR’s at airports were placed in the middle so that they could be turned Precision Approach Radar (PAR)
  • 15. Precision Approach Radar (PAR) • PAR proved its effectiveness during the Berlin Airlift, landing aircraft every 90 seconds • Some PAR’s still remain even though ILS is the landing air of choice
  • 16. PAR Equipment (Inside)
  • 17. PAR Antenna System MPN 13 Mobile System
  • 18. New Stuff
  • 19. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) • Primary short range radar used by FAA • Most major civilian airports use ASR • Used in Approach and Departure Control Facility • Range of about 100 Miles
  • 20. Airport Surveillance Radar Antennas’
  • 21. Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) • Long Range radar for Center use • Have range of about 250 Miles
  • 22. Old Center Radar
  • 23. Center Radar Display CO 123 350C B757 310 Slide courtesy of Prof. J. Hansman
  • 24. New Center Radar
  • 25. En Route Full Data Block AAL278 330C 068 500 Position Symbol Beacon Target Aircraft Identification Ground Speed Mode ‘C’ Altitude X100 Leader Line Computer Identification Number Vector Line Histories
  • 26. Airport Surface Detection Equipment • Short range radar system to help controller locate the locations of moving, ground based aircraft and vehicles
  • 27. Thank you!!!
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