Air Pollution in California Presentation for Tamalpais High School Environmental Science Classes

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  Air Pollution in California Presentation for Tamalpais High School Environmental Science Classes Mill Valley, CA 13 January 2014. Amy Zimpfer, P.E. Associate Director Air Division U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 9. Overview. History of Air Pollution and Health Effects
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Air Pollution in California Presentation for Tamalpais High School Environmental Science Classes Mill Valley, CA 13 January 2014 Amy Zimpfer, P.E. Associate Director Air Division U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 9 Overview
  • History of Air Pollution and Health Effects
  • Clean Air Act Overview
  • California Air Quality
  • Strategies and Actions to Reduce Air Pollution
  • San Francisco Bay Area PM2.5 Pollution
  • Questions?
  • Los Angeles, CA 1943 First recorded photo of smog in Los Angeles, 1943 (Photo courtesy of Los Angeles Times Collection, Department of Special Collections, UCLA Library). On July 26, 1943, in the midst of World War II, Los Angeles was attacked -- not by a foreign enemy, but a domestic one -- smog. The Los Angeles Times reported that a “pall of smoke and fumes descended on downtown, cutting visibility to three blocks.” Donora, Pennsylvania 1948 In 1948, a lethal haze caused by air pollution from steel and zinc smelters, coupled with an inversion layer killed nearly 40 people in Donora, Pennsylvania. LONDON: Fog descended thicker than ever today for the second straight evening in London to threaten another killer smog if it does not clear soon. Four thousand Londoners died in less than a week of smog last year. Druggists reported a rush to get "smog masks" although only a few appeared on the streets. The weather bureau predicted the fog would not lift for another 48 hours. International Herald-Tribune, Nov, 1953 London, England 1953 Source of london for info: http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor/environment/air_quality/docs/50_years_on.pdf Ozone (“Good Up High, Bad straight evening in London to threaten another killer smog if it does not clear soon. Four thousand Londoners died in less than a week of smog last year. Druggists reported a rush to get "smog masks" although only a few appeared on the streets. The weather bureau predicted the fog would not lift for another 48 hours. Nearby”) “Nearby” ozone forms from the reaction between VOCs (or ROGs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), and is dependent on the presence of heat and sunlight http://www.epa.gov/airquality/ozonepollution/ Health Effects of Ozone straight evening in London to threaten another killer smog if it does not clear soon. Four thousand Londoners died in less than a week of smog last year. Druggists reported a rush to get "smog masks" although only a few appeared on the streets. The weather bureau predicted the fog would not lift for another 48 hours.
  • Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems including:
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing
  • Throat irritation
  • Congestion
  • Reduced Lung Function
  • It can worsen bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.
  • Repeated exposure may permanently scar lung tissue.
  • Particulate straight evening in London to threaten another killer smog if it does not clear soon. Four thousand Londoners died in less than a week of smog last year. Druggists reported a rush to get "smog masks" although only a few appeared on the streets. The weather bureau predicted the fog would not lift for another 48 hours. Matter: PM2.5
  • Solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere
  • PM10: fine particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less
  • PM2.5: aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less (sometimes referred to as fine PM)
  • Health Impacts of PM2.5: straight evening in London to threaten another killer smog if it does not clear soon. Four thousand Londoners died in less than a week of smog last year. Druggists reported a rush to get "smog masks" although only a few appeared on the streets. The weather bureau predicted the fog would not lift for another 48 hours.
  • premature death in people with heart or lung disease
  • nonfatal heart attacks
  • irregular heartbeat
  • aggravated asthma
  • decreased lung function
  • increased respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing.
  • Scientists investigated, and states began passing clean air legislation.
  • Congress passed Clean Air Act in 1970.
  • Pollution Events and Science Catalyze U.S. Clean Air Act U.S. Clean Air Act Structure
  • Title I – Attainment and Maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards
  • Title II – Mobile Sources
  • Title III – Hazardous Air Pollutants
  • Title IV – Acid Deposition
  • Title V – Operating Permits
  • Title VI – Stratospheric Ozone
  • Title VII – Enforcement  Major Revisions occurred in 1977 and 1990
  • EPA Sets U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to Protect Public Health
  • What’s the Air Quality? to Protect Public Health Monitor Ambient Air
  • What’s Causing the Pollution?  Emissions Inventory + Air Quality Modeling (Meterology, Atmospheric Chemistry)
  • How to Clean Up the Pollution?  Air Quality Plan
  • Regulations/Rules
  • Incentive to Convert to Clean Technology
  • Voluntary Programs
  • Will Air be Clean by the Clean Air Act Deadline?  Attainment Demonstration
  • How to Ensure Actions Happen? Enforcement and Reevaluation
  • EPA’s Steps to Clean Air National Air Quality - 8-hour Ozone to Protect Public Health Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Air Quality - PM to Protect Public Health2.5 Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Ozone to Protect Public Health
  • 1. Los Angeles – Long Beach – Riverside, CA
  • 2. Visalia – Porterville, CA
  • 3. Bakersfield – Delano, CA
  • 4. Fresno – Madera, CA
  • 5. Hanford – Corcoran, CA
  • Most Polluted U.S. Cities
  • 24-Hour PM2.5
  • 1. Bakersfield-Delano, CA
  • 2, Fresno-Madera, CA
  • 3. Hanford-Corcoran, CA
  • 4. Los Angeles – Long Beach – Riverside, CA
  • 5. Modesto, CA
  • Annual PM2.5
  • 1. Bakersfield-Delano, CA
  • 2. Merced, CA
  • 3. Fresno-Madera, CA
  • 4. Hanford-Corcoran, CA
  • 5. Los Angeles – Long Beach – Riverside, CA
  • Source: American Lung Association, http://www.stateoftheair.org/
  • Los Angeles & San Joaquin Valley to Protect Public Health
  • Exposure vs. Other Metro US
  • Nationwide, the vast majority health impacts from PM2.5 and ozone occur in the South Coast and San Joaquin Valley, CA PM2.5 8-Hour Ozone (NOx) Population-weighted incremental exposure to: PM2.5 above the NAAQS annual standard based on 2007-2009 data and ozone above the 8-Hour NAAQS (> 75 ppb), based on 2008-2010 design values San Joaquin Valley, CA – to Protect Public HealthOverview
  • 64,000 km2
  • 4 million residents
  • Significant sources:
  • Agriculture
  • Oil production
  • Motor vehicles
  • Residential wood burning
  • Significant secondary NH4NO3 (from NOx) and NH4 precursors
  • Highest 24-hour PM2.5 concentrations in winter
  • Sources:Terry, Magliano, and Kaduwela, (CARB), September 2013; A&WMA Environmental Manager; http://www.sjvgeology.org/maps/index.html SJV NO to Protect Public Healthx Emissions (2020 estimates) USEPA & CA Set Engine and Fuel Standards for New Vehicles to Protect Public Health 1980’s: Mechanical Engine
  • “Zero-Emission”
  • No emissions from tailpipe/exhaust
  • 1990’s: Electronic Engine Retarded Timing 2010: 98% Cleaner EGR Hybrid DPFs Electric SCR Fuel Cells USEPA & CA Establish National Emission Standards for Industrial and Consumer Sources Utility Boilers Refineries
  • Consumer Products
  • e.g. Hairspray, Fingernail Polish
  • Other Combustion Sources
  • e.g. Woodstoves
  • Cement Plants
  • Other Industrial Operations
  • e.g. Cement Plants, Aerospace etc
  • Power Plants
  • Provide Industrial and Consumer Sources Incentive Fundingto Convert to Clean Vehicles
  • AB 118 Carl Moyer >$100M Prop 1B $250M1 School Bus $200M2 BAR ~$25M ARB ~$30M CEC ~$100M Truck Loans Trucks and buses Low carbon fuels and vehicles Trucks Light-duty scrap and repair Off-road equipment Locomotives Clean school buses Advanced technology vehicles & equipment Marine vessels Ag pumps Support infrastructure Marine vessels Shore power R & D Locomotives Smog/PM in goods movement corridors Children’s air toxic exposure Criteria pollutants and toxics Climate change goals Smog from gross polluters SIP emission reductions 1Contingent on bond sales 2One time funding PM2.5 Nonattainment in 2025 Industrial and Consumer Sources SJV NO Industrial and Consumer Sources x Emissions(2020 estimates) San Joaquin Valley—Additional Measures Industrial and Consumer Sources
  • Rules
  • Tighter Woodburning Restrictions
  • Control of Underfired Charbroiling
  • Confined Animal Feeding Operations
  • Public Education
  • Spare The Air Days/Don’t Light Tonight
  • Technology Advancement
  • Electric Agricultural Pumps
  • Cleaner Diesel Trucks and Tractors
  • Renewable Energy
  • Cleaner Dairy Manure Systems
  • Alternative Fuels Source: San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District
  • National Industrial and Consumer Sources Rules to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Stationary Source GHG Rules Light Duty Vehicle Emission Standards Renewable Fuel Standard 2 GHG Reporting Rule S.F. Bay Area Winter PM 2.5 Trends Industrial and Consumer Sources Source: Bay Area Air Quality Management District San Francisco Bay Area PM2.5 Pollution 11/1/13 – 1/8/14 Industrial and Consumer Sources S.F. Bay Area Winter PM 2.5 Sources Industrial and Consumer Sources Source: Bay Area Air Quality Management District What would YOU do to reduce Wintertime PM2.5 in the Industrial and Consumer Sources Bay Area?
  • Source: Bay Area Air Quality Management District
  • Questions? Industrial and Consumer Sources epa.gov/oar epa.gov/region9 [email protected]/* */ THANK YOU!
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