Air pollution

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  1. AAir pollutionir pollution Kravchuk OksanaKravchuk Oksana 2. AtmosphereAtmosphere The is the gaseous envelope ofThe is the gaseous envelope of the Earth, which…
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  • 1. AAir pollutionir pollution Kravchuk OksanaKravchuk Oksana
  • 2. AtmosphereAtmosphere The is the gaseous envelope ofThe is the gaseous envelope of the Earth, which rotatesthe Earth, which rotates together with it. Here is ozonetogether with it. Here is ozone protection the life of the Earthprotection the life of the Earth from hard to just live Solarfrom hard to just live Solar radiation. The radiation energyradiation. The radiation energy that is absorbed, convertedthat is absorbed, converted into thermal energy of the gasinto thermal energy of the gas molecules. Solar radiation,molecules. Solar radiation, which passes to the earth'swhich passes to the earth's surface, has a very securesurface, has a very secure borders, and all UV rays withborders, and all UV rays with shorter wavelength stall in theshorter wavelength stall in the invisible light but imperviousinvisible light but impervious layer of the ocean air.layer of the ocean air.
  • 3.  The air is pollutedThe air is polluted with various gases,with various gases, small slices and liquidsmall slices and liquid substances thatsubstances that negatively affect livingnegatively affect living beings, worsening thebeings, worsening the conditions of theirconditions of their existence. Sources ofexistence. Sources of pollution can bepollution can be natural and artificialnatural and artificial (anthropogenic)(anthropogenic)
  • 4. The world economyThe world economy annually emits more thanannually emits more than 15 billion tons of carbon15 billion tons of carbon dioxide, 200 million tonsdioxide, 200 million tons of carbon monoxide,of carbon monoxide, more than 500 millionmore than 500 million tons of hydrocarbons,tons of hydrocarbons, 120 million tons of ash120 million tons of ash and other Total emissionsand other Total emissions of pollutants into theof pollutants into the atmosphere is more thanatmosphere is more than 19 billion tons.19 billion tons.
  • 5. Principal pollutantsPrincipal pollutants  The main pollutants emitted to the atmosphere from fuelThe main pollutants emitted to the atmosphere from fuel combustion, are solid particles (ash, soot), sulphurcombustion, are solid particles (ash, soot), sulphur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (N0 and N02) byoxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (N0 and N02) by incomplete combustion of fuel in the gaseous emissionsincomplete combustion of fuel in the gaseous emissions can accumulate carbon oxide (CO), hydrocarbon typecan accumulate carbon oxide (CO), hydrocarbon type CH4, SN, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,CH4, SN, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzopyrene (C20 H12) and vanadium pentoxidebenzopyrene (C20 H12) and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). The last two compounds belong to the class of(V2O5). The last two compounds belong to the class of extremely dangerous. Dioxide (SO2) and tungstenextremely dangerous. Dioxide (SO2) and tungsten trioxide (SO3) sulphur are the main components oftrioxide (SO3) sulphur are the main components of environmental pollution from fuel combustion.environmental pollution from fuel combustion.
  • 6. The main global environmentalThe main global environmental consequences of air pollution are:consequences of air pollution are: The greenhouseThe greenhouse effecteffect The ozone hole
  • 7. AAcid raincid rain Acid rain - all kinds ofAcid rain - all kinds of meteorologicalmeteorological precipitation: rain,precipitation: rain, snow, hail, fog, rainsnow, hail, fog, rain and snow, the acidityand snow, the acidity of which is higherof which is higher than normal. Athan normal. A measure of the aciditymeasure of the acidity is pH (hydrogen ionis pH (hydrogen ion exponent). Normal pHexponent). Normal pH in pure rain is 5.6.in pure rain is 5.6.
  • 8. The greenhouse effectThe greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is aThe greenhouse effect is a phenomenon in the atmosphere ofphenomenon in the atmosphere of Earth and other planets, in whichEarth and other planets, in which the energy of sunlight, reflectedthe energy of sunlight, reflected from the surface, may not return tofrom the surface, may not return to space, as delayed by thespace, as delayed by the molecules of different gases,molecules of different gases, which leads to increased surfacewhich leads to increased surface temperatures. Without thetemperatures. Without the greenhouse effect the Earth'sgreenhouse effect the Earth's surface temperature is estimatedsurface temperature is estimated would be about 33° lower than itwould be about 33° lower than it actually is, and would be -18 °C.actually is, and would be -18 °C. The greenhouse effect isThe greenhouse effect is significant also on Mars and,significant also on Mars and, especially, on Venus.especially, on Venus. The greenhouse effect wasThe greenhouse effect was discovered indiscovered in 1829 Joseph1829 Joseph Fourier.Fourier.
  • 9. Ozone hole The ozone hole is a local drop in theThe ozone hole is a local drop in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphereconcentration of ozone in the stratosphere by 10-40%by 10-40% The ozone hole with a diameter of more thanThe ozone hole with a diameter of more than 1000 km was first opened in 1985 in the1000 km was first opened in 1985 in the southern hemisphere over Antarctica by asouthern hemisphere over Antarctica by a group of British The Antarctic "ozone hole"group of British The Antarctic "ozone hole" there is not constant. She appears at thethere is not constant. She appears at the end of the local winter - early spring. Theend of the local winter - early spring. The reasons why the ozone hole is formed in thereasons why the ozone hole is formed in the Antarctic associated with the peculiarities ofAntarctic associated with the peculiarities of local climate. Low temperatures of thelocal climate. Low temperatures of the Antarctic winter lead to the formation of theAntarctic winter lead to the formation of the polar vortex. The air inside this vortexpolar vortex. The air inside this vortex moves mostly closed trajectories around themoves mostly closed trajectories around the South pole. At this time the polar region notSouth pole. At this time the polar region not illuminated by the Sun, and therefore theilluminated by the Sun, and therefore the ozone there is not formed. With the onset ofozone there is not formed. With the onset of summer, the amount of ozone increasessummer, the amount of ozone increases and comes back to normal. That is, theand comes back to normal. That is, the seasonal variations of ozone concentrationseasonal variations of ozone concentration over Antarctica are natural. However, ifover Antarctica are natural. However, if track changes averaged over a year ozonetrack changes averaged over a year ozone concentration and size of the ozone hole inconcentration and size of the ozone hole in recent decades, there is a definiterecent decades, there is a definite downward trend in ozone concentration anddownward trend in ozone concentration and the increase in the area, which covers thisthe increase in the area, which covers this process in the winter. Over the Northernprocess in the winter. Over the Northern hemisphere in the Arctic is formed a holehemisphere in the Arctic is formed a hole much smaller.much smaller.
  • 10. Ozone hole The ozone hole is a local drop in theThe ozone hole is a local drop in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphereconcentration of ozone in the stratosphere by 10-40%by 10-40% The ozone hole with a diameter of more thanThe ozone hole with a diameter of more than 1000 km was first opened in 1985 in the1000 km was first opened in 1985 in the southern hemisphere over Antarctica by asouthern hemisphere over Antarctica by a group of British The Antarctic "ozone hole"group of British The Antarctic "ozone hole" there is not constant. She appears at thethere is not constant. She appears at the end of the local winter - early spring. Theend of the local winter - early spring. The reasons why the ozone hole is formed in thereasons why the ozone hole is formed in the Antarctic associated with the peculiarities ofAntarctic associated with the peculiarities of local climate. Low temperatures of thelocal climate. Low temperatures of the Antarctic winter lead to the formation of theAntarctic winter lead to the formation of the polar vortex. The air inside this vortexpolar vortex. The air inside this vortex moves mostly closed trajectories around themoves mostly closed trajectories around the South pole. At this time the polar region notSouth pole. At this time the polar region not illuminated by the Sun, and therefore theilluminated by the Sun, and therefore the ozone there is not formed. With the onset ofozone there is not formed. With the onset of summer, the amount of ozone increasessummer, the amount of ozone increases and comes back to normal. That is, theand comes back to normal. That is, the seasonal variations of ozone concentrationseasonal variations of ozone concentration over Antarctica are natural. However, ifover Antarctica are natural. However, if track changes averaged over a year ozonetrack changes averaged over a year ozone concentration and size of the ozone hole inconcentration and size of the ozone hole in recent decades, there is a definiterecent decades, there is a definite downward trend in ozone concentration anddownward trend in ozone concentration and the increase in the area, which covers thisthe increase in the area, which covers this process in the winter. Over the Northernprocess in the winter. Over the Northern hemisphere in the Arctic is formed a holehemisphere in the Arctic is formed a hole much smaller.much smaller.
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