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  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Ms.SHIVANGI SAXENA Assitant Professor Department of Biotechnology Baba Farid College 2.  Air Pollution Water Pollution Acid…
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  • 1. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Ms.SHIVANGI SAXENA Assitant Professor Department of Biotechnology Baba Farid College
  • 2.  Air Pollution Water Pollution Acid Rain Biomagnification Eutrophication Soil Pollution Solid Wastes Noise Pollution
  • 3. Pollution : Undesirable changes in physical,chemical or biological characteristics of environment air,water,soil and land that has potiental to adversely affect human beings,natural resources, industrial process.
  • 4. Natural: forest fires, pollen, dust storm, Nitrogen oxide,volcanic eruption, soil erosion, uv rays. Unnatural: man-Burrning of fossil fuels,mining,sewage,pesticides and fertilizers,Noise energy
  • 5. Pollutant Biodegrable Pollutant Non Biodegrable Pollutant
  • 6. Air Pollution Addition of particles,gases,chemicals into the atmosphere that affect human health,animals,vegetation ,natural resources Substances and factor which cause air pollution are called Air Pollutants. Air pollutant : 2 types- Primary and Secondary Air Pollutant
  • 7. 5 M a j o r P o l l u t a n t s : 1 . . ) C a r b o n M o n o x i d e 2 . ) S u l f u r D i o x i d e 3 . ) N i t r o g e n D i o x i d e 4 . ) P a r t i c u l a t e M a t t e r 5 . ) G r o u n d L e v e l O z o n e
  • 8. CCaarrbboonn MMoonnooxxiiddee •colorless, odorless •produced when carbon does not burn in fossil fuels •present in car exhaust •deprives body of O2 causing headaches, fatigue, and impaired vision
  • 9. SSuullffuurr DDiiooxxiiddee •Produced in large quantity during smelting of metallic ores •Burning of petroleum,coal in industries and thermal plant •Effects: •Causes chlorosis and necrosis of vegetation Membrane damage,irritation to eyes,injury to respiratory tract Discolouration of building,fabrics.
  • 10. NNiittrrooggeenn DDiiooxxiiddee •reddish, brown gas •produced when nitric oxide combines with oxygen in the atmosphere •present in car exhaust and power plants •affects lungs and causes wheezing; increases chance of respiratory infection
  • 11. PPaarrttiiccuullaattee MMaatttteerr •particles of different sizes and structures that are released into the atmosphere •present in many sources including fossil fuels, dust, smoke, fog, etc. •can build up in respiratory system •aggravates heart and lung disease; increases risk of respiratory infection
  • 12. GGrroouunndd LLeevveell OOzzoonnee •at upper level, ozone shields Earth from sun’s harmful UV rays •at ground level, ozone is harmful pollutants •formed from car, power and chemical plant exhaust •irritate respiratory system and asthma; reduces lung function by inflaming and damaging lining of lungs
  • 13. •Combination of gases with water vapor and dust •Combination of words smoke and fog •Forms when heat and sunlight react gases (photochemical smog) •Occurs often with heavy traffic, high temperatures, and calm winds
  • 14. •1st smog related deaths were in London in 1873; death till 500 people; can you imagine how much worse the atmosphere is now?! •Limits visibility •Decreases UV radiation •Yellow/black color over cities •Causes respiratory problems and bronchial related deaths
  • 15. Photochemical Smog Grey or yellowish brown Opaque smog Ist reported in Los Angeles In 1940 Formed at high temp Over cities and town due To air,emmision of NO & Carbon from automobiles Exhausts & solar flares
  • 16. Classical Smog(London Smog) Occur at low temp Contain sulphur gases,smoke and dust particles Dark Brown and opaque Formed by condensation of water vapours with Hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide over dust or smoke particles. Occured in london during Dec 1952 when it affected 50% of population.
  • 17. Control of Air Pollution It can be achieved by Low sulphur fossil fuel Reduction in Emission Zoning of industries away from human settlement . Destroying pollutants by thermal or catalytic combustion Changing pollutants to less toxic forms  By precipitation of pollutant
  • 18. •Ride your bike •Tell your friends and family about pollution •Make sure your parents get pollution checks on their cars •Ride the school bus
  • 19. •Learn more; stay up to date •Join a group to stop pollution •Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you leave the room
  • 20. Control of Particulate Matter: - Two type of devices Arresters Cyclonic separtors Gravity Settling Chamber Filters Electrostatic Precipitators Scrubbers
  • 21. Cyclonic Separator Particulate rich air is passed into a chamber where it is rotated Centrifugal force causes settling of particulate while clean air is allowed to pass out
  • 22. Gravity Settling Chambers Dirty Air is passed through a large chamber. Particulate settle down while cleaner air passes out
  • 23. Filter Large sized porous bags of polyester,polyprolene, Polyamide,teflon etc through which dry emission are passed under pressure to filter out particulate matter
  • 24. Electrostatic Precipatators
  • 25. EUTROPHICATION
  • 26. BIOMAGNIFICATION EUTROPHICATION Increase in concentration of non biodegradable substances in the food chains Enrichment of water body with plant nutrients. Found in all types of ecosystem Found only in aquatic ecosystem. Leads to toxicity in higher order consumers Leads to death of most animals and plants. There is no bloom formation Bloom formation occurs in eutrophic water.
  • 27. ACID RAIN
  • 28. Thank for your kind Attention
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