Air pollution and Bird's migeration by zainab amjad

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  1. Air pollution & Birds migration! 2. Presented by: Zainab Amjad Gullalai Huma 3. Birds ã Birds are reptile like animals ã An outer covering of feathers; two…
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  • 1. Air pollution & Birds migration!
  • 2. Presented by: Zainab Amjad Gullalai Huma
  • 3. Birds • Birds are reptile like animals • An outer covering of feathers; two legs that are covered with scales and are used for walking or perching; and front limbs modified into wings. • The bones of skeleton are spongy, light and contain spaces which are connected with air sacs of lungs.
  • 4. …..continued • Breast bone or sternum is broad and produced into a prominent ventral keel. • Tail feathers are used for steering during flight. • Most of the feature are adaptations for flight and aerial mode of living.
  • 5. Birds have comparatively large brain due to which they show highly organized behavior in the form of nest building, courtship, parental care and migration.
  • 6. Birds migration! • Some of the birds are only present for some of the time. • Migration is the part of the animal’s life. • Characterized by geographic movements. • An adaptation that has been shaped by natural selection. • Bird migration is the regular seasonal journey undertaken by many species of birds. • Between 1500 and 4000 species of birds migrate.
  • 7. • All kinds of birds migrate, from large cranes, birds of prey, to tiny hummingbirds. • Even flightless birds migrate. • Emus move from breeding sites in the rainy season to more permanent water sources in the dry. • Penguins migrate in the ocean. • Auk babies migrate by swimming until they fledge and can fly. • Even birds that spend their entire non-breeding time in flight, such as seagulls, also move around on the ocean to follow seasonal food abundances.
  • 8. Types of birds migration Two types • Long distance migration • Short distance migration
  • 9. Long distance migration • Due to changing of seasons. • The longest migration is undertaken by the Arctic Tern. • Breeds in the Arctic North in the summer. • Spend winter on the Antarctic ice pack. • The shortest distance between the two poles is 15,000km.
  • 10. ….contd. • Another example of long migrant birds are Swallows, Northern breeding ducks, Geese, swans. • Migratory routes are learned by young during first migration with their parents.
  • 11. Short distance migration • Migration in response to harsh weather condition or food scarcity or unfavorable condition. • Journey to the near areas. • Wall creeper and white throated Dipper move only altitudinal. • Marlin and Skylark will move further to the coast.
  • 12. Factors responsible for Birds Migration • Harsh weather conditions • Availability of food • Unfavorable conditions • Air pollution
  • 13. Air pollution • Introduction of chemicals, particulate matter that can alter the natural environment. • Includes SOx , NOx , CO, CO2 , CFC’s , NH3. • Badly effect all living organisms including birds in following aspects;
  • 14. • Global warming • Bad air quality causes diseases • Smog reduces visibility • Acid rain • Particulate matters
  • 15. Global warming: causes climatic change, extreme weather conditions, unpredictable weather, disturbing the migratory patterns of birds. Bad air quality: causes respiratory diseases in birds, causes death, badly effects the birds population in dense areas. smog: reduces visibility, causes irritation, diverge the birds from their migratory pathway.
  • 16. Acid rain: acid rain effects the Arial life in two ways. • Through direct contact • Through water contamination; a major threat to water birds feeding on fishes and aquatic organisms. Particulate matters: also harm the birds, make the conditions unfavorable for them, also diverge them from their migratory routes.
  • 17. • A magnified picture of particles present in volcanic ash from the eruption of a volcano in Iceland on 20th April 2010. • Contains silica, glass, pollen grains, and gases like sulpher dioxide.
  • 18. • April is the peak month of spring migration for millions of birds, so the ongoing eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, presents hundreds of millions of birds with an unusually challenging set of circumstances as they fly to their northerly breeding grounds.
  • 19. • Because the vast majority of migratory birds fly at altitudes of 7,000 meters or less where the volcanic ash is drifting around, there is no doubt that they also are being exposed to the volcanic ash cloud. Since birds are more sensitive than humans to airborne toxins, there should be little doubt that many birds are being negatively impacted. Additionally, there is anecdotal evidence that wild migratory birds are suffering and possibly dying due to the effects of volcanic ash clouds.
  • 20. What to do?? • Bird and bird migration are the important parts of Biodiversity. • We have to save them. • we cant stop the natural phenomenon but we can control the anthropogenic activities badly affect the biodiversity. • Growing forests • Reduces use of fossil fuels. • Reduces use of automobiles. • Reduce excessive hunting.
  • 21. Thanks for your attention!
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