13-16 de septiembre de 2017, Chengdu (China). El turismo: un sector clave en la consecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible

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  Vigésima segunda reunión de la Asamblea General de la OMT Directrices para el debate general sobre «El turismo y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible: Viaje a 2030» (rev.2) de septiembre de 2017,
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Vigésima segunda reunión de la Asamblea General de la OMT Directrices para el debate general sobre «El turismo y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible: Viaje a 2030» (rev.2) de septiembre de 2017, Chengdu (China). ANTECEDENTES Agenda 2030: Plan de acción universal para las personas, el planeta y la prosperidad La Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas aprobó en 2015 la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible y el conjunto de 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), que describen un planteamiento universal, integrado y transformador con el objetivo de lograr un mundo mejor para el año Los ODS y sus 169 metas correspondientes, que se han desarrollado tomando como base los históricos objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio (ODM), definen un novedoso plan de acción para las personas, el planeta y la prosperidad de todos los países. Todo ello implica una gestión más integrada y equilibrada de las tres dimensiones del desarrollo sostenible: la económica, la social y la medioambiental. El turismo: un sector clave en la consecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible El turismo puede ser un instrumento eficaz para fomentar y alcanzar los hitos de esta ambiciosa agenda, debido a que es uno de los sectores más importantes dentro de la economía mundial, especialmente en el ámbito del comercio internacional, y el motor principal en la creación de empleo y riqueza de los países desarrollados y en desarrollo. El turismo figura de forma explícita como meta en los Objetivos 8, 12 y 14 sobre el crecimiento económico inclusivo y sostenible, sobre modalidades de consumo y producción sostenibles y para utilizar de manera sostenible los océanos y los recursos marinos, respectivamente. Sin embargo, si tenemos en cuenta el inmenso volumen de este sector y su carácter transversal, el turismo podría contribuir en gran medida y de forma tanto directa como indirecta a la consecución de los 17 ODS. Se ruega reciclar El turismo y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible: Viaje a 2030 Con motivo de la celebración del Año Internacional del Turismo Sostenible para el Desarrollo en 2017 y gracias al impulso que supone la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible, la Organización Mundial del Turismo (OMT) y el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) están elaborando de forma conjunta un informe titulado «El turismo y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible: Viaje a 2030». El fin de este informe es constituir una hoja de ruta para el sector turístico, además de para la comunidad internacional y los asociados para el desarrollo entre otros, en la que se estipule la vía de aplicación y de consecución de la agenda de desarrollo universal y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible a través del turismo. El informe «El turismo y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible: Viaje a 2030» se propone servir para empoderar e inspirar a los gobiernos, a los encargados de la formulación de políticas, a las empresas y al sector del turismo en general, así como para influir en ellos de manera que refuercen su compromiso con la Agenda 2030 sobre Desarrollo Sostenible, dado que integra los aspectos pertinentes de los 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible en los marcos políticos y de financiación, además de nuevos modelos de negocio, e ilustra cómo el turismo puede contribuir de forma eficaz a la consecución de los 17 ODS. DEBATE GENERAL Objetivo En el seno de la vigésima segunda reunión de la Asamblea General de la OMT, el objetivo del debate general sobre «El turismo y los ODS» será convocar a los ministros responsables del turismo y los jefes de delegación para abordar cómo el sector turístico puede contribuir a la consecución de la Agenda mundial 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible a nivel nacional e internacional y beneficiarse de ello. El debate se basará en las conclusiones iniciales de la Reseña de orientación sobre el turismo y los ODS (véase el documento preliminar en el anexo), derivado del informe «El turismo y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible: Viaje a 2030», cuyo objetivo es perfilar la hoja de ruta para que los encargados de la formulación de políticas sobre turismo, el sector privado, la OMT y el sector en general adopten prácticas sostenibles y potencien al máximo la contribución del turismo a la agenda mundial para el desarrollo. En concreto, generará ideas innovadoras y una serie de recomendaciones para la adopción de medidas de cara al año Un segmento de alto nivel precederá al debate general la mañana del día 13 de septiembre de 2017 sobre «El turismo y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y Alianzas para el desarrollo: el ejemplo de la iniciativa Belt and Road» (el programa se publicará próximamente). Con el fin de que la participación en el debate general sea productiva y dinámica, la Secretaría sugiere que las declaraciones de las delegaciones se centren en los siguientes temas: 1. Cómo puede ayudar el turismo a la consecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible en su país. 2. A qué Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible puede contribuir el turismo de su país. 2 3. Vías para hacer del turismo parte integrante de la estructura de gobernanza nacional para los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible e incluirlo de forma eficaz en los planes de desarrollo del país. 4. Cómo pueden ayudarnos los marcos actuales a seguir integrando los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible en la planificación del turismo. 5. Cómo pueden incentivar los encargados de la formulación de políticas al sector privado para que adopte prácticas empresariales sostenibles y estrategias de Responsabilidad Social de las Empresas con el fin de lograr los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Qué asociaciones entre el sector público y el privado se pueden llevar a cabo en este ámbito. 6. Vías para persuadir a la comunidad de donantes y seguir recabando su apoyo con el objetivo de destinar una mayor cantidad de fondos al sector turístico y poder explotar así su potencial para impulsar la consecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. 7. Cómo podrían los encargados de la formulación de políticas sobre el turismo en los países desarrollados ayudar a catalizar un aumento de la asistencia oficial para el desarrollo (AOD) desde sus departamentos de cooperación para el desarrollo de forma que se incrementen las ayudas y las inversiones en el sector turístico en los países desarrollados. 8. Qué mecanismos de financiación innovadores podrían complementar a la actual AOD y a la cooperación para el desarrollo para reforzar la capacidad que tiene el turismo de alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y sus metas. Procedimientos Se ruega a las delegaciones que quieran intervenir en el debate general que envíen un correo electrónico a la Secretaría antes del 31 de agosto indicando en el asunto «Debate general». La Secretaría añadirá los nombres de los oradores a una lista con el objetivo de que el debate sea lo más ordenado y satisfactorio posible. Debido a las limitaciones de tiempo, es fundamental restringir el uso de la palabra de las delegaciones a un máximo de tres minutos. Estará a su disposición el servicio de interpretación simultánea para los idiomas árabe, chino, inglés, francés, ruso y español. No se traducirán aquellas declaraciones por escrito que se presenten en el momento del debate de la Asamblea General. 3 Annex 1: Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals: Scoping Paper Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals Scoping paper 22 nd Session of the UNWTO General Assembly September 2017 Chengdu, China The combination of effective and robust policy frameworks, enhanced private sector action, and a more holistic approach to development cooperation can help strengthen the role of tourism as a positive force of change, contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The entire tourism community, including policymakers, companies and other tourism stakeholders, as well as the development community at large, can and should be ready to act together. This scoping paper presents the initial findings of the Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals - Journey to 2030 research, and aims to stimulate the discussion among policymakers at the 22 nd UNWTO General Assembly on how to advance the contribution of tourism to the SDGs. After the historic agreement on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 2016 began as the first year of country-planning and implementation on the SDGs. The shift from commitment to actions and results can only be achieved if sustainable development moves from the periphery to the core of decision-making in both public and private domains. While the universal SDGs offer a new direction, tourism can and must play a leadership role in delivering a better future for people and the planet. An economic powerhouse that represents 10% of world GDP 1, 30% of services exports 2 and 1 out of every 11 jobs in the world 3, tourism was the third world category in export earnings in and produces profound and wide-ranging impacts across all dimensions of sustainable development. Tourism can thus contribute directly and indirectly to the achievement of all 17 SDGs, from generating inclusive growth and eradicating extreme poverty to combatting climate change, from fostering gender equality to conserving marine and terrestrial ecosystems. It can also, if not well managed, contribute to destroying our unique cultural assets, harming the environment and disturbing social structures. Against this backdrop, and on the occasion of the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development 2017 (IY2017), the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), together with other partners, are joining forces to produce the Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals Journey to 2030 report with a view to disentangle tourism s connection with the SDGs in public policy, the private sector and development cooperation. The report aims to (i) generate knowledge, (ii) empower stakeholders, and (iii) inspire action for the tourism sector to fully embrace sustainable development. Drawing a parallel between SDG achievement through tourism and the five key areas of the IY i) sustainable economic growth, (ii) social inclusiveness, employment and poverty reduction, (iii) resource efficiency, environmental protection and climate change, (iv) cultural values, diversity and heritage, (v) mutual understanding, peace and security the final report will incorporate the experiences and lessons learned from a variety of tourism and global stakeholders, and establish a comprehensive roadmap and framework for achieving the 2030 Agenda through tourism. The final report will be presented at the closing ceremony of the IY2017 in December 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland. The scoping paper revolves around the following three themes: 1 Direct, indirect and induced impact. Source: World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). 2 World Tourism Organization (2016a) Tourism Highlights 2016 Edition. Madrid: UNWTO. 3 Direct, indirect and induced impact. Source: World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). 4 World Tourism Organization (2016a) Tourism Highlights 2016 Edition. Madrid: UNWTO. 5 See: ( ). 4 (1) Public policy: 22 Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) 6 that were submitted to the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) 7 in 2016 are analyzed to understand how countries perceive the tourism sector in relation to the SDGs. The research aims to identify key drivers of SDG implementation, the context in which tourism is mentioned and how it relates to the SDGs. It also seeks to identify reported opportunities, challenges and threats associated with tourism. The findings will shed light on opportunities for tourism to become more firmly integrated in national SDG planning and provide key recommendations for tourism policymakers to be fully part of that process. (2) Private sector: The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) actions of 60 large tourism companies representing accommodation, transport, tour operators, and other travel intermediaries are analyzed and matched with the 17 SDGs, in particular with 67 pre-identified SDG targets that apply to tourism. The results of the gap analysis shall lead to a tourism compact for the private sector, as well as to recommendations for policymakers to create incentives for more sustainable business practices, in line with the SDGs. (3) Development cooperation: The above-mentioned VNRs, together with other relevant sources, are also examined with regard to tourism s role in development cooperation. Key questions include whether tourism is identified as a sector for development cooperation, and what actions could trigger further support and investment in terms of Official Development Assistance (ODA) 8 or other means. The findings shall give an indication on how to leverage ODA and develop innovative financing frameworks for tourism and the SDGs. They shall lead to key recommendations for tourism policymakers to attract and channel more funds to tourism. 1. The SDGs in public policy The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development encourages member states to conduct regular and inclusive reviews of progress at the national and sub-national levels, which are country-led and country-driven 9. Under the auspices of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the HLPF plays a key role in monitoring the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. In 2016, a total of 22 countries offered to present their VNRs to the HLPF, a number that has doubled in It should be noted, however, that the VNRs of 2016 were the very first attempts to monitor progress on the implementation of the SDGs, and while they can provide a good indication of the countries intent, the actual level of implementation remains naturally to be seen. A thorough follow-up and review, ideally in 4 5 year cycles, will signal whether or not the aims have been effectively converted into policy action, including in National Sectorial Policies (NP) for Tourism. For the purpose of this scoping paper, all 22 VNRs of 2016 were analyzed (the final report will include the 43 VNRs presented in 2017) to identify the role of tourism in national strategies of both developed and developing countries, and the means through which tourism can both benefit from and contribute to the achievement of the SDGs. The set-up of institutional frameworks and mechanisms, which varies from country to country, is pertinent to the shaping of national policies, including for tourism. While some countries assign responsibility of SDG implementation and coordination to the highest level of government, others may opt for implementation that is coordinated by specific ministries. Some countries reported undertaking assessments of how to incorporate the SDGs in existing development plans, whereas others have embraced them in the formulation of new plans. The analysis of the VNRs aims to pinpoint the key drivers as well as national and international actors responsible for SDG implementation. It seeks to identify the extent to which tourism is perceived and included in national planning, and how it relates to the SDGs and their targets. These findings will shed light on untapped opportunities for tourism 6 Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) on the SDGs are presented by UN member states as a basis for the regular reviews by the HLPF. They aim to facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned with regard to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The full report will include the 22 VNRs of 2016 as well as the 43 VNRS of The 22 VNRs of the HLPF 2016 are available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/hlpf ( ). 7 The High-level Political Forum is the UN s central platform for follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the SDGs. Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/hlpf ( ). 8 Official Development Assistance (ODA) is defined as government aid designed to promote the economic development and welfare of developing countries. Loans and credits for military purposes are excluded. Source: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), available at https://data.oecd.org/oda/net-oda.htm ( ). 9 United Nations (2015), Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Paragraph 79, available at ( ). 5 Mention of tourism in relation to the SDGs policymakers and stakeholders to take part in the formulation of national SDG strategies, making tourism a key driver thereof. Of the 22 countries that presented their VNRs in 2016, 14 countries mentioned tourism. The government of Montenegro has tasked its Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism to oversee and coordinate SDG implementation, whereas a further five countries mentioned the Ministry of Tourism in their VNRs, namely Colombia, Georgia, Mexico, Morocco and Sierra Leone. The 14 countries making reference to tourism (ten developing countries and four developed countries) related the sector to different themes and issues, going beyond the three SDGs in which tourism is explicitly featured, namely SDGs 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production) and 14 (Life below Water). The context in which tourism is mentioned in the VNRs corresponds directly or indirectly with 10 specific SDGs, and is shown in figure 1.1. Figure 1.1 Countries mention of tourism in relation to the SDGs, as reported in 14 VNRs (HLPF 2016) SDG Theme Developing Countries Developed Countries Goal 8 Decent Work and Economic Growth Colombia, Egypt, Georgia, Montenegro, Mexico, Uganda, Venezuela, Philippines, Sierra Leone Goal 12 Responsible Consumption and Production Montenegro, Mexico, Uganda Goal 13 Climate Action Colombia, Egypt, Montenegro Goal 14 Life below Water Egypt, Mexico, Norway Goal 15 Life on Land Montenegro, Uganda Estonia, France, Germany France, Germany Goal 17 Partnerships for the Goals Uganda Estonia, Germany Goal 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities Montenegro, Sierra Leone Goal 16 Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions Colombia, Egypt Goal 5 Gender Equality Colombia Goal 9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure Uganda No mention of tourism in relation to the SDGs China, Madagascar, Samoa, Togo, Turkey Finland, Republic of Korea, Switzerland Tourism is often seen as a sector for progress when mentioned: eleven countries recognized the sector for its economic contribution and its ability to create jobs and stimulate inclusive growth, and as such by its contribution in achieving SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth). Five VNRs linked tourism with topics related to SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production), and three with SDGs 13 (Climate Action), 14 (Life below Water), 15 (Life on Land) and 17 (Partnerships for the Goals), as shown in figure Figure 1.2 Tourism s links to the SDGs as reported in the 14 VNRs (HLPF 2016) that mentioned tourism Tourism's links to the SDGs as reported in the 14 VNRs (HLPF 2016) that mentioned tourism Decent Work and Economic Growth - Goal 8 Responsible Consumption and Production - Goal 12 Climate Action - Goal 13 Life below Water - Goal 14 Life on Land - Goal 15 Partnerships for the Goals - Goal 17 Sustainable Cities and Communities - Goal 11 Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions - Goal 16 Gender Equality - Goal 5 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure - Goal Number of countries Despite tourism s link to ten SDGs in the 14 VNRs, no country associated tourism directly with SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 or 10, which address the issues of poverty, food security, health and well-being, education, water and sanitation, clean energy and inequalities, respectively. UNWTO s review of the SDGs, however, revealed that tourism can in fact be linked to more than 60 of the SDGs 169 targets, and can thus contribute to all Goals. Hence, these first findings of the VNR analysis demonstrate that there are important gaps that ought to be considered and addressed by policymakers, and possibly other tourism stakeholders, in ensuring a better re
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